- GS-2: Appointment to various Constitutional posts, powers, functions and responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.
Context: The role, powers, and discretion of the Governor’s Office in multiple States have been the subject of constitutional, political, and legal debate for decades.
- Recently, the prolonged silence of Jharkhand’s Governor over Chief Minister Hemant Soren’s possible disqualification as an MLA resulted in political uncertainty.
- The deadlock between the Tamil Nadu government and Governor R.N. Ravi over assenting to the National Eligibility cum Entrance Test (NEET) exemption Bill is another instance of a tussle between the Governor and the elected government in a State.
It thus becomes pertinent to understand what the framers of the Constitution had envisaged for the post of the Governor, and what powers have been specifically granted to the Office of Governors and Lieutenant Governor in the Constitution.
- Since 1858, when India was administered by the British Crown, provincial Governors were agents of the Crown, functioning under the supervision of the Governor-General.
- Over the following decades, the Indian nationalist movement sought various reforms from British rule, aiming for better governance. These efforts culminated in the Government of India Act, 1935, which came into force in 1937, bringing provincial autonomy.
- Post this, the Indian National Congress commanded a majority in six provinces.
- With the 1935 law, the Governor was now to act in accordance with the advice of Ministers of a province’s legislature, but retained special responsibilities and discretionary power
- Upon Independence, when the Provisional Constitution of 1947 was adapted from the 1935 Act, the post of Governor was retained but the phrases ‘in his discretion, ‘acting in his discretion, and ‘exercising his individual judgement’, were omitted.
- The post of the Governor was extensively debated in the Constituent Assembly, which too decided to retain it while re-orienting its role from the British era. Under the parliamentary and cabinet systems of governance adopted by India, the Governor was envisaged to be the Constitutional Head of a State.
1.Elected Vs Nominated Governor
- While it is now enshrined in Articles 154 and 155 of the Constitution that the Governor is to be nominated by the President as the executive head of the State, members had questioned whether a nominated Governor could be impartial.
- Biswanath Das, a member from Orissa, expressed his apprehension and asked how a Governor nominated by the President and the Central Government would co-operate with the elected State Government.
- In his defence of a “nominated Governor”, Jawaharlal Nehru reasoned that an elected Governor would fuel separatist provincial tendencies. He proposed that the Governor, nominated as such, could be a “detached figure” who could rise above party politics.
- Ambedkar concurred by asking why, if the Governor’s post was a “purely ornamental” one, should money and effort be spent on an election.
- Whether discretionary power be given to Governor?
- Article 143 of the draft Constitution (now Article 163) states that the Council of Ministers of a State with the Chief Minister as the head should “aid and advise” the Governor in carrying out his functions, “except in so far as he is by or under this Constitution required to exercise his functions or any of them in his discretion”.
- Multiple members of the Assembly raised concern about the “discretion” clause. However, Dr. Ambedkar contended that vesting the Governor with certain discretionary powers was in no sense contrary to the concept of responsible government. He said that the phrase “except in so far as he is by or under this Constitution” in Article 143 meant that the discretion was a “very limited” clause
- Role in Administration
- Members also raised doubts about Article 147 (now 167), which empowers the Governor to ask the Chief Minister to furnish any information regarding the administration of the affairs of the State and proposals for legislation”. The article also empowers the Governor to ask the Chief Minister for reconsideration of the decision taken.
- Some argued that this Article would enable the Governor to interfere with and obstruct the administration carried out by the State Government
- Ambedkar said this notion was “completely mistaken” as the Article nowhere said that the Governor could overrule the Ministry. He added that if the Governor’s limited duties of advising and warning Ministers was also taken away, then he would be rendered a “completely unnecessary functionary”.
- However, in the recent past, multiple State Governments have routinely expressed discontent over Governors interfering with day-to-day administration
- The prolonged discord between former West Bengal Governor and ruling government resulted in state writing to the Centre multiple times to recall the Governor.
- There was similar conflict when Kiran Bedi was serving as the Governor of Puducherry.
- The other important provisions defining the Governor’s role state that the Governor appoints the Chief Minister after an election and the Council of Ministers on the advice of the CM (Article 164).
- The Governor can also summon, prorogue, and dissolve the Legislative Assembly (Article 174). By convention, he does this on the advice of the Council of Ministers while they enjoy the confidence of the Assembly.
- The M Punchhi Commission’s report on Centre-State relations points out that the exercise of his discretion happens only when following the Council’s advice would be unconstitutional or if the Council has lost the confidence of the Assembly.
- Every Bill passed in an Assembly has to be sent to the Governor (Article 200), after which he has four options —
- to assent to the Bill
- withhold assent
- reserve the Bill for the consideration of the President
- return the Bill to the legislature, asking it to reconsider the Bill or an aspect of it.
- The Governor can also suggest an amendment to the Bill. The legislature is supposed to quickly consider the recommendations but if it chooses to pass the Bill in the same form again, “the Governor shall not withhold assent therefrom”.
As for the role of the Lieutenant Governor, Article 239, introduced through an amendment in 1956, states that each Union Territory will be administered by the President through an administrator appointed by him and given a designation he specifies.
- The administrators in some UTs are designated as Lieutenant Governors, with a special provision (Article 239AA) for the National Capital Territory of Delhi, which was inserted in 1991.
- The Lt. Governor of Delhi also acts on theadvice of the Council of Ministers except on the subjects of police, public order, and land. The Lt. Governor can exercise his discretion when required by any law. In case of a difference of opinion with the Ministers, he would have to consult the President.
- The role of the Governor was first questioned after the 1952 elections in undivided Madras, when, ignoring the United Democratic Front’s (UDF) claim as the party with the majority, Governor Sri Prakasa invited the Congress to form the government, which it did after engineering several splits and defections, with Rajaji as Chief Minister.
- The Governor’s position was subject to much debate after the fourth general elections of 1967 when the Congress lost power in eight States while retaining it at the Centre.
- In 1975, after the declaration of national Emergency, the DMK regime offered political support to dissidents, which led to realignments in State politics. Then Tamil Nadu Governor K. K. Shah sent a report to the President to dismiss the DMK government for pervasive corruption. President’s Rule was imposed on February 3, 1976.
- In the subsequent decades, the formation of regional parties and fragile alliances to form governments led to politically volatile situations in many States. In many such cases, Governors started being called upon to exercise their discretion, thus inviting allegations of partisanship.
- The calling for President’s Rule by Governors became a regular practice and it was imposed in States over a 100 times prior to 1994.
- It was with this backdrop that the Supreme Court’s nine-judge Bench gave its historic verdict in the R. Bommai case in 1994, ruling that imposition of President’s Rule shall be only in the event of a breakdown of constitutional machinery.
- R. Bommai was the Chief Minister of the Janata Dal government in Karnataka in April 1989, when his government was dismissed. The dismissal was on the grounds that the Bommai government had lost majority following large-scale defections. Then Governor P. Venkatasubbaiah refused to give Bommai an opportunity to test his majority in the Assembly.
- The Supreme Court ruled that the floor of the Assembly should be the only forum that should test the majority of the government of the day, and not the subjective opinion of the Governor.
- In another judgement, Shamsher Singh vs State of Punjab (1974), the Supreme Court said that President and Governor shall “exercise their formal constitutional powers only upon and in accordance with the advice of their Ministers except in a few well-known exceptional situations”.
- In late 2015, a political crisis arose in Arunachal Pradesh, where the Governor, acting without the advice of the Chief Minister, advanced the Assembly session and listed removal of the Speaker as the agenda. The Supreme court held that the Governor can summon, prorogue and dissolve the House only on the aid and advice of the Council of Ministers with the Chief Minister as the head. And not at his own will
- The Supreme Court has time and again highlighted that “the area for the exercise of his (Governor’s) discretion is limited”. Even in this limited area, his choice of action should not be arbitrary or fanciful. It must be a choice dictated by reason, actuated by good faith and tempered by caution.
- The Sarkaria Commission, headed by Justice R. S. Sarkaria, said in its 1988 report that it would not be desirable to appoint a Governor who is a member of the ruling party at the Centre, in a State where an Opposition party is governing. It said that the Governor appointee should be a detached outsider and a person of eminence in some walks of life.
- Later, in 2007, the M.M Punchhi Commission report stated that Governors were expected to be independent, and to act in a manner devoid of any political consideration. It pointed out that independence of such actions would include keeping the State Legislature and the political executive shielded from the political will of the Union Government
Main Practice Question: The Governor been acting more of an ‘agent of the centre’ rather than being the ‘constitutional head of state’.” Analyse the statement in the light of recent controversies involving the post of Governor in India.
Note: Write answers to this question in the comment section.