×

IASbaba's Flagship Course: Integrated Learning Programme (ILP) - 2023  Read Details

DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 22nd September 2022
Published on Sept. 22, 2022, 3:50 p.m.

Archives


(PRELIMS & MAINS Focus)


Asian Development Bank

Open in new window

Syllabus

  • Prelims – Current Affairs (International Institutions)

Context: The Asian Development Bank (ADB) has pared its 2022-23 growth projection for India’s economy to 7% from 7.5% estimated in April, terming it a “modest downward revision” driven by higher-than-anticipated inflation and monetary tightening.

In this context let us know the financial institution in detail:

Origins of ADB:

  • ADB was conceived in the early 1960s as a financial institution that would be Asian in character and foster economic growth and cooperation in one of the poorest regions in the world.
  • A resolution passed at the first Ministerial Conference on Asian Economic Cooperation held by the United Nations Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East in 1963 set that vision on the way to becoming reality.
  • The Philippines capital of Manila was chosen to host the new institution, which opened in 1966, with 31 members that came together to serve a predominantly agricultural region. Takeshi Watanabe was ADB’s first President.
  • During the 1960s, ADB focused much of its assistance on food production and rural development.
  • In May 2014, plans were announced to combine the lending operations of ADB’s two main funds, the Asian Development Fund, and its ordinary capital resources. The merger will boost ADB’s total annual lending and grant approvals to as high as $20 billion—50% more than the current level when it takes effect in January 2017.
  • From 31 members at its establishment in 1966, ADB has grown to encompass 68 members including India—of which 49 are from within Asia and the Pacific and 19 outside.
  • This bank was modelled on the lines of the world bank. As of 31st December 2021, Japan holds the largest share in ADB with 15.677%, followed by U.S.A (15.567%), China (6.473%), and India (5.812%).
  • It is headquartered in Manila, Philippines.

ADB Green and Blue Bonds:

  • The Green Bond program enables ADB to support its developing member countries seeking to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and adapt to the consequences of climate change, whilst delivering environmentally sustainable growth to help reduce poverty and improve the quality of life of their people.
  • The Green Bond portfolio specifically targets projects that promote the transition to low carbon and climate resilient growth as set out in the ADB Green Bond Framework.
  • In order to address the growing funding gap required to protect and restore ocean health, global markets need to systematically change. ADB’s Blue bonds encourage that shift by increasing the amount of capital that can be invested in oceans to finance solutions at scale.

Recent development between ADB & India:

  • ADB and India have signed a loan of $206 million to strengthen urban services in 5 Tamil Nadu cities.
  • Asian Development Bank (ADB) has listed its 10-year masala bonds worth Rs 850 crore on the global debt listing platform of India INX.
  • Asian Development Bank (ADB) had prepared a Conceptual Development Plan (CDP) for Vizag-Chennai Industrial Corridor (VCIC).

Source:   The Hindu                   

Previous Year Question

Q.1) In which one of the following groups are all the four countries members of G20? (2020)

  1. Argentina, Mexico, South Africa, and Turkey
  2. Australia, Canada, Malaysia, and New Zealand
  3. Brazil, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Vietnam
  4. Indonesia, Japan, Singapore, and South Korea

Salar Jung Museum, Hyderabad

Open in new window

Syllabus

  • Prelims – Current Affairs

In News: A 14th century ceremonial sword that was sold in Hyderabad to a British General in the early 20th century is set to return to India. The sword is among the seven objects being repatriated by Glasgow Life, which manages Glasgow’s museums.

  • The tulwar was donated by to Glasgow Life museums’ collections in 1978.

About:

  • The sword, shaped like a snake, has serrated edges and a damascene pattern, with gold etchings of an elephant and tigers.
  • The sword was exhibited by Nizam of Hyderabad (1896-1911) at the 1903 Delhi Durbar (a ceremonial reception held to commemorate the coronation of King Edward VII and Queen Alexandra as Emperor and Empress of India)
  • The tulwar (sword) was purchased in 1905 by a British General from Maharaja Sir Kishen Pershad, the Prime Minister of Hyderabad.
  • Kishen Pershad was known for his munificence where he was known to throw out coins to people chasing his motorcar.

History of Salar Jung Museum:

  • The Salar Jung Museum was established in the year 1951 and is located on the southern bank of the river Musi in Hyderabad, Telangana State of India.
  • The family is one of the most illustrious families in Deccan history, five of them having been prime-ministers in the erstwhile Nizam rule of Hyderabad-Deccan.
  • Nawab Mir Yousuf Ali Khan, popularly known as Salar Jung III was appointed prime minister by Nawab Mir Osman Ali Khan Nizam VII in 1912.
  • The collection in the form of a museum was declared open in 1951 in Dewan Deodi, home of late Salar Jung’s and was opened to the public by Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India.
  • Later the Government of India with the consent of the family members took over the Museum formally through a compromise deed and the museum was administered by the Ministry of Scientific Research and Cultural Affairs, Government of India.
  • Finally, in 1961, through an “Act of Parliament” the Salar Jung museum along with its library was declared an “Institution of National Importance”.

A Brief History of the Salar Jung Family:

  • Nawab Mir Turab Ali Khan, Salar Jung I, was awarded the title of Salar Jung Bahadur and later he was appointed as Prime Minister by Nizam IV, Nawab Mir Farkhunda Ali Khan Nasir-ud-Daulah.
  • Salar Jung I was inspired by commemorative mementos made for coronations and special events of European royal families.
  • He is also said to have bought the” Veiled Rebecca” to India along with many other master pieces.
  • Mir Laiq Ali Khan was appointed first as secretary to the Council of Regency and later as a member of the Council of State. He was appointed as Prime Minister in 1884 by the Nizam VI of Hyderabad Nawab Mir Mehboob Ali Khan was conferred the title “Imad-us-Sultanat”.
  • Salar Jung III emulated the traditions of European royal families in commissioning famous manufacturing houses in Europe to specially design gold-crested cutlery and crockery.

Nawab Mir Osman Ali Khan, the seventh Nizam appointed Mir Yousuf Ali Khan, Salar Jung III, as his prime minister in 1912. On health grounds, Salar Jung III relinquished the post of prime minister in November 1914. Thereafter, he devoted his time to enrich his art collection.

Source: The Hindu               


Shrinkflation

Open in new window

Syllabus

  • Prelims – Current Affairs (Economy)

What is Shrinkflation?

  • Shrinkflation is the practice of reducing the size of a product while maintaining its sticker price.
  • It is a form of hidden inflation.
  • Raising the price per given amount is a strategy employed by companies, mainly in the food and beverage industries, to stealthily boost profit margins or maintain them in the face of rising input costs.
  • Shrinkflation is also referred to as package downsizing in business and academic research.
  • A less common usage of this term may refer to a macroeconomic situation where the economy is contracting while also experiencing a rising price level.

What are the Major Causes of Shrinkflation?

  • Higher Production Costs: Rising production costs are generally the primary cause of shrinkflation.
    • Increases in the cost of ingredients or raw materials, energy commodities, and labour increase production costs and subsequently diminish producers’ profit margins.
    • Reducing the products’ weight, volume, or quantity while keeping the same retail price tag can improve the producer’s profit margin.
  • Intense Market Competition: Fierce competition in the marketplace may also cause shrinkflation.
    • The food and beverage industry are generally an extremely competitive one, as consumers are able to access a variety of available substitutes.
    • Therefore, producers look for options that will enable them to keep the favour of their customers and maintain their profit margins at the same time.

Source: The Hindu

 Previous Year Questions:

Q.1) With reference to inflation in India, which of the following statements is correct? (2015)

  1. Controlling the inflation in India is the responsibility of the Government of India only
  2. The Reserve Bank of India has no role in controlling the inflation
  3. Decreased money circulation helps in controlling the inflation
  4. Increased money circulation helps in controlling the inflation

ISRO’s hybrid propulsion system

Open in new window

Syllabus

  • Prelims – Science & Tech

In News: The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) said on September 21, 2022, that it has successfully demonstrated a hybrid propulsion system at the ISRO Propulsion Complex (IPRC), Mahendragiri, on Tuesday evening. The test was conducted by the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) with support from the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC).

About:

  • In rocket engines, oxidisers supply the oxygen needed for combustion.
  • Conventional HTPB-based solid propellant motors used in rockets use ammonium perchlorate as oxidiser.
  • The hybrid system uses a Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB)-based aluminised solid fuel and liquid oxygen (LOX) as the oxidiser.
  • The ground-based test was performed for 15 seconds on a 300-mm sounding rocket motor.

Benefits:

  • While both HTPB and LOX are green, the cryogenic LOX is safer to handle.
  • And unlike conventional solid motors, the hybrid technology permits restarting and throttling capabilities on the motor.
  • The hybrid system is more efficient, ”greener” and safer to handle and paves the way for new propulsion technologies for future missions.

Source: The Hindu             

Previous Year Question

Q.1) With reference to India’s satellite launch vehicles, consider the following statements:   (2018)

  1. PSLVs launch the satellites useful for Earth resources monitoring whereas GSLVs are designed mainly to launch communication satellites.
  2. Satellites launched by PSLV appear to remain permanently fixed in the same position in the sky, as viewed from a particular location on Earth.
  3. GSLV Mk III is a four-staged launch vehicle with the first and third stages using solid rocket motors; and the second and fourth stages using liquid rocket engines.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 2
  4. 3 only

Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs)

Open in new  window

Syllabus

  • Prelims: Science & Tech

In News: The World Health Organisation (WHO) has released a report: ‘Invisible numbers – the true scale of non-communicable diseases’ on non-Communicable diseases

  • WHO has launched a portal, which, for the first time, brings together all WHO data related to NCDs for 194 countries.
  • President of the Public Health Foundation of India had described NCDs as a public health emergency in slow motion.

Findings of the report:

  • NCDs led to 66% of deaths in India in 2019
  • Further there was a 22 per cent probability of death between the age of 30 and 70
  • Over 60.46 lakh people died due to NCDs in India in 2019.
  • Every two seconds, one person under the age of 70 dies of a non-communicable disease (NCD) with 86 per cent of those deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries.
  • Non-communicable disease deaths are due to cardiovascular diseases (over 25 lakhs deaths), chronic respiratory disease (over 11 lakhs deaths), diabetes (around 3.5 lakhs deaths), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer.
  • Diabetes of Type 2 nature accounts for more than 95 per cent of global cases caused due to– tobacco use, unhealthy diet, harmful use of alcohol, physical inactivity, and air pollution.
  • Cancer causes one in six deaths – 9.3 million people a year — and 44 per cent of cancer deaths could have been prevented or delayed by eliminating risks to health.
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease kills 4.1 million people a year i.e., cause of one in 13 deaths.
  • Covid-19 highlighted the links between NCDs and infectious disease, as in the early months of the pandemic, 75 per cent of countries reported disruption to essential NCD services.

About Type 2 diabetes:

  • Diabetes is one of the most common NCDs
  • Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects the way the body processes blood sugar (glucose). With type 2 diabetes, the body either doesn’t produce enough insulin, or it resists insulin.
  • It is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.
  • Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity, lack of exercise, excessive use of alcohol and tobacco and unhealthy lifestyle.
  • Symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, hunger, fatigue, and blurred vision.
  • Treatments include diet, exercise, medication, and insulin therapy.

Source: Indian Express                  

Previous Year Question

Q.1) In the context of hereditary diseases, consider the following statements: (2021)

  1. Passing on mitochondrial diseases from parent to child can be prevented by mitochondrial replacement therapy either before or after in vitro fertilization of egg.
  2. A child inherits mitochondrial diseases entirely from mother and not from father.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

INDIA-EGYPT RELATIONS

Open in new  window

Syllabus 

  • Prelims – Current Affairs
  • Mains – GS 2 (International Relations)

In News: Union Defence Minister meets President of Egypt  in Cairo. India and Egypt agreed to further develop military cooperation and focus on joint training, defence coproduction and maintenance of equipment.

Historical Relations:

  • India and Egypt, two of the world’s oldest civilizations, have enjoyed a history of close contact from ancient times. Even prior to the Common Era, Ashoka’s edicts refer to his relations with Egypt under Ptolemy II.
  • In modern times, Mahatma Gandhi and Saad Zaghloul shared common goals on the independence of their countries
  • Exceptionally close friendship between Gamal Abdel Nasser and Jawaharlal Nehru, leading to a Friendship Treaty between the two countries in 1955.

Political Relations:

  • India and Egypt share close political understanding based on long history of contacts and cooperation in bilateral, regional, and global issues.
  • Both countries have cooperated closely in multilateral fora and were the founding members of Non-Aligned Movement.
  • The year 2022 is of particular significance since it marks the 75th anniversary of diplomatic relation between India and Egypt.

Economic Relations:

  • The India-Egypt Bilateral Trade Agreement has been in operation since March 1978 and is based on the Most Favoured Nation clause and the bilateral trade has increased more than five times in last ten years.
  • The bilateral trade in 2018-19 reached US$ 4.55 billion.
  • Despite Pandemic, the volume of trade declined only marginally to US $ 4.5 billion in 2019-20 and to US $ 4.15 billion in 2020-21 (Egypt’s exports to India were valued at US$ 1.89 billion and imports from India at US$ 2.26 billion with India having a favourable trade balance of US$ 372 million.)
  • Bilateral trade has expanded rapidly in 2021-22, amounting to 26 billion registering a 75% increase compared to FY 2020-21.
  • India’s exports to Egypt during this period amounted to US$ 3.74 billion, registering a 65% increase over the same period in FY 2020-21. At the same time, Egypt’s exports to India reached US$ 3.52 billion registering an 86% increase.

Development assistance:

  • The grants-in-aid projects include: Pan Africa Tele-medicine and Tele-education project in Alexandria University, Solar electrification project in Agaween village and Vocational Training Centre for textile technology in Shoubra, Cairo, which have been completed.
  • Technical cooperation and assistance have been a major part of our bilateral relationship. Since 2000, over 1250 Egyptian officials have benefited from ITEC and other programs like ICCR and IAFS scholarships.
  • In the field of scientific cooperation, ICAR and the Agricultural Research Centre of Egypt are working in the field of agricultural research.
  • Science & Technology’ cooperation is implemented through biennial Executive Programmes and Scientific Cooperation Programme between CSIR (India) and NRC (Egypt).
  • Space cooperation is an emerging vertical of cooperation between India and Egypt. Joint Working Group meetings and discussions between ISRO and NARSS (National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences) have been held, since an MoU was signed.

Defence Relations:

  • There was close cooperation between the Air Forces, with efforts at jointly developing a fighter aircraft in 1960s.
  • IAF pilots had also trained Egyptian pilots from 1960s until 1984.
  • Most of the current defence cooperation is determined by Joint Defence Committee (JDC) activities.
  • Egypt participated in the Multinational Training Exercise for friendly African countries held at Pune in 2019. The first ever IAF-EAF Joint Tactical Air Exercise, Dessert Warrior, was held in 2021.
  • The first ever Special Forces exercise “Cyclone 1” between India and Egypt planned in Jodhpur from 8th – 22nd January 2022 stands postponed.

Cultural Relations:

  • The Maulana Azad Centre for Indian Culture (MACIC) has been promoting cultural cooperation between the two countries, through regular activities such as Hindi, Urdu and Yoga classes; seminars; film shows; exhibitions and participation in local cultural activities.
  • ‘Sawt-ul-Hind’, Embassy’s flagship Arabic magazine for the past six decades, reached a milestone in July 2017 with the publishing of its 500th edition, depicting the strong bond and vibrant cultural exchanges between the two countries.

Indian Community: At present, the Indian community in Egypt numbers at around 3200, most of whom are concentrated in Cairo.

Way forward:

The year 2022 is of particular significance since it marks the 75th anniversary of diplomatic relation between India and Egypt and there shall be constant effort to reinforce and grow this friendship.

Source: The Hindu

 


The ambit of fraternity and the wages of oblivion

Open in new  window

Syllabus

  • Prelims – Polity and Constitution
  • Mains – GS 2 (Polity and Constitution)

Introduction:

“ WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:

JUSTICE, social, economic, and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;

EQUALITY of status and of opportunity;

and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation;

IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.”

  • Preamble contains ideals that the Constitution seeks to achieve. It gives direction and purpose to the Constitution.
  • It also enshrines the grand objectives and socio-economic goals which are to be achieved through constitutional processes.

About fraternity:

  • “These principles of liberty, equality and fraternity are not to be treated as separate items in a trinity. They form a union of trinity in the sense that to divorce one from the other is to defeat the very purpose of democracy,’ said B.R. Ambedkar in the Constituent Assembly, in 1949.
  • Dr Ambedkar defines fraternity as “a sense of common brotherhood and sisterhood among all Indians.” He was sure in his opinion that “equality and liberty will be no deeper than coats of paint” without fraternity.

Note: The values of liberty, equality and fraternity in our Preamble is taken directly from the national motto of France: Liberté, égalité, fraternité, which in term came from the French Revolution (1789).

The responsibility of the individual citizen:

  • R. Ambedkar provided its rationale with remarkable foresight: ‘We must begin by acknowledging the fact there is a complete absence of two things in Indian society. One of these is equality’ and as a result of it we would enter into ‘a life of contradictions’ on January 26, 1950.
  • However, practical adherence to this commitment was given shape only by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment (1976) in Article 51A (e) on Fundamental Duties. It makes it the duty of every citizen of India ‘to promote harmony and the spirit of common among all the people of India, transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities.’
  • Significantly, the responsibility for bringing this about does not rest with the state but seems to be the responsibility of the individual citizen. We, therefore, need to comprehend the meaning and relevance of this pious wish.
  • The idea of fraternity is based on the view that people have responsibilities to each other. It was defined after the French Revolution in the following terms: ‘Do not do to others what you would not want them to do to you; do constantly to others the good which you would wish to receive from them.’

The shape of inequality:

  • An aggravating factor, often overlooked, is the shape that inequality takes in different segments of our society. It is economic on one plane; on others it is regional, caste and religious.
  • Sociologists have identified nine categories of people who are determined to be socially and/or politically and/or economically excluded. These particularly include Dalits, Adivasis, women and religious minorities.
  • Recent studies on religious minorities who constitute around 20% of India’s population have traced discrimination relating to them to perceptions that relate to the partition of August 1947.
    • They argue that violence was not merely accidental but integral to the foundation of the nation and that the need for fraternity coexisted with the imperative need for restoring social cohesion in segments of society.
  • A primary concern of the Constitution-makers related to cohesion and integration of the units of the new Republic formally described as ‘A Union of States’.
    • In the words of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, ‘the inspiration and the stimulus came from above rather than from below and unless the transplanted growth takes a healthy root in the soil, there will be a danger of collapse and chaos.’ This was amplified by V.P. Menon as the ‘integration of the minds of the people’.

In a speech in the Constituent Assembly on December 22, 1952, B.R. Ambedkar dwelt on what he called ‘Conditions Precedent for the Successful Working of Democracy’. He listed these as:

  • absence of glaring inequalities
  • presence of an opposition
  • equality of law and administration
  • observance of constitutional morality
  • avoidance of tyranny of majority over minority
  • a functioning of moral order in society
  • public conscience.

Fraternity in present times:

  • Over time, uneven development has characterised the States of the Indian Union. Regional and linguistic diversity characterises them. And so does uneven economic development and progress, resulting in uneven levels of education, employment, social cohesion, and contentment.
  • 75 years after independence , a candid assessment of the state of the Republic makes us ponder on evidence of regional diversity, assertion of linguistic identity and emergence of diverging political orientations.
  • Article 51A(e) of the Constitution does not differentiate between citizens on any of the categories mentioned above and makes it an all-encompassing duty and Its ambit therefore is universal.

Conclusion:

The term ‘fraternity’ refers to a sense of brotherhood as well as an emotional bond with the country and its people. We must cultivate the sense of this brotherhood in order to truly realise “Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav’.

Source: The Hindu           

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) What was the exact constitutional status of India on 26th January, 1950? (2021)

  1. A Democratic Republic
  2. A Sovereign Democratic Republic
  3. A Sovereign Secular Democratic Republic
  4. A Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic

Q.2) The Preamble to the Constitution of India is       (2020)

  1. a part of the Constitution but has no legal effect
  2. not a part of the Constitution and has no legal effect either
  3. part of the Constitution and has the same legal effect as any other part
  4. a part of the Constitution but has no legal effect independently of other parts

Rules for identifying criminals

Open in new  window

Syllabus

  • Prelims – Current Affairs (Governance)
  • Mains – GS 2 (Governance)

Context: Recently, the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) notified the rules governing The Criminal Procedure (Identification) Act, 2022. The legislation would enable police and central investigating agencies to collect, store and analyse physical and biological samples including retina and iris scans of arrested persons.

About Criminal Procedure (Identification) Act, 2022:

  • The Act seeks to repeal the Identification of Prisoners Act, 1920, which is over 100-years-old.
    • The old Act’s scope was limited to capturing of finger impression, foot-print impressions and photographs of convicted prisoners and certain category of arrested and non-convicted persons on the orders of a Magistrate.
  • The Statement of Objects and Reasons of the bill when it was introduced in Parliament said that new ‘‘measurement’’ techniques being used in advanced countries are giving credible and reliable results and are recognised world over.
  • It said that the 1920 Act does not provide for taking these body measurements as many of the techniques and technologies had not been developed then.
    • The Act empowers a Magistrate to direct any person to give measurements, which till now was reserved for convicts and those involved in heinous crimes.
    • It also enables the police up to the rank of a Head Constable to take measurements of any person who resists or refuses to give measurements.

As per the rules, “measurements” include:

  • finger-impressions
  • palm-print
  • footprint
  • photographs
  • iris and retina scan
  • physical, biological samples and their analysis
  • behavioural attributes including signatures, handwriting or any other examination referred to in Section 53 or 53A of CrPC, 1973.

Concerns about the misuse of the Act:

  • When the Bill was debated in Parliament in March this year, the Opposition members termed it “unconstitutional” and an attack on privacy as it allowed the record of samples of even political detainees.
  • However, the rules notified in September state that samples of those detained under preventive Sections such as 107, 108, 109, 110, 144, 145 and 151 of the CrPC shall not be taken unless such person is charged or arrested in connection with any other offence punishable under any other law.
  • It can also be taken if a person has been ordered to give security for his good behaviour for maintaining peace under Section 117 of the said Code for a proceeding under the said Sections.
  • The rules do not mention the procedure to be adopted for convicted persons.

Repository of the measurement data:

  • The National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) under MHA will be the one-stop agency for storing and preserving the data of arrested persons.
  • The State governments can also store the data, but it shall provide compatible application programming interfaces for sharing the measurements or record of measurements with the NCRB.
  • The rules state that the NCRB will issue Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) for collection of measurements which would include specifications of the equipment or devices to be used, specifications and the digital and physical format of the measurements etc.
  • The rules said that in case any measurement is collected in physical form or in a non-standard digital format, it shall be converted into standard digital format and thereafter uploaded in the database as per the SOP.
  • Only authorised users could upload the measurements in the central database in an encrypted format.

Provisions for destruction of records in case a suspect is acquitted:

  • It is yet to be specified by the NCRB. The rules state that any request for destruction of records shall be made to the Nodal Officer who is to be nominated by the respective State Government.
  • The nodal officer will recommend the destruction after verifying that such record of measurements is not linked with any other criminal cases.

Facial recognition technology (FRT):

  • It is a biometric technology that uses distinctive features of the face to identify and distinguish an individual.
  • In the Automated Facial Recognition System (AFRS), the large database (containing photos and videos of peoples’ faces) is used to match and identify the person.
  • Image of an unidentified person, taken from CCTV footage, is compared to the existing database using Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology, for pattern-finding and matching.
  • Though the Criminal Procedure Identification Rules (CPIR), 2022 does not explicitly mention FRT or AFRS, some concerns have been raised over its potential use by police and other investigative agencies. Already Delhi Police is using FRT.

Conclusion:

Use of technology for better identification of criminals and record keeping must be balanced with the citizens’ right to privacy, which is now recognised as a fundamental right under Indian constitution.

Source:  The Hindu                  

Previous Year Questions

Q.1) With reference to India, consider the following statements:    (2020)

  1. Government law officers and legal firms are recognized as advocates, but corporate lawyers and patent attorneys are excluded from recognition as advocates.
  2. Bar Councils have the power to lay down the rules relating to legal education and recognition of law colleges.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) With reference to India, consider the following statements:   (2021)

  1. Judicial custody means an accused is in the custody of the concerned magistrate and such accused is locked up in police station, not in jail.
  2. During judicial custody, the police officer in charge of the case is not allowed to interrogate the suspect without the approval of the court.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Global Digital Governance

Open in new  window

Syllabus

  • Prelims – Current Affairs
  • Mains – GS 2 (Governance)

Context: In an interview earlier this month, Telecom Minister Ashwini spoke about a comprehensive policy roadmap for India’s digital economy and digital governance.

In this regard, let us discuss Digital Governance in detail:

What is digital governance ?

  • Electronic governance or e-governance can be defined as the usage of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by the government to provide and facilitate government services, exchange of information, communication transactions and integration of various standalone systems and services.

What is “global digital governance”?

  • Global digital governance encompasses the norms, institutions, and standards that shape the regulation around the development and use of these technologies. Digital governance has long-term commercial and political implications.

What are the three domains of e-governance?

  • E-administration: improving government processes
  • E-services: connecting individual citizens with their government
  • E-society: building interactions with and within civil society.

Is there a historical parallel to governing key economic sectors globally?

  • Digital economy is not unprecedented: Sectors critical to the global economy are subject to international cooperation frameworks and pacts.
    • Therefore, the idea of setting up a single multilateral organization with a mandate to govern the digital economy is not unprecedented.
  • The International Commission for Air Navigation (ICAN): Global aviation has been regulated since 1903 when the International Commission for Air Navigation (ICAN) first met, subsequently replaced by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) in 1947.
  • Bank for International Settlements (BIS): Similarly, the modern international banking system is governed by the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), an institution initially set up in the interwar period in 1930 to oversee Germany’s reparations to the Allies under the Treaty of Versailles.
    • The BIS acquired a more global mandate beginning in the 1950s and is now partially responsible for global financial stability.

Who are the key players in the global contest for digital governance?

  • China seeks to champion the concept of cyber sovereignty: An authoritarian vision drives the first model. Most notably, China is emerging as the standard-bearer for this model with its desire to “reinvent the internet.”
    • China seeks to champion the concept of “cyber sovereignty,” allowing countries to control access to the internet, censor content, and institute data localization requirements, as a pretext to protecting individual national interests.
  • European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR): This model primarily seeks to protect the privacy and rights of internet users and online content consumers.
    • Adopted with the overwhelming support of the European Parliament in 2014, the GDPR came into effect in May 2018, giving firms that rely on digital technologies the opportunity to modify their data usage and privacy policies.
    • The adoption of the GDPR has been a turning point for global internet governance as consumers gained unprecedented control over their data in a manner that preserved freedom and openness online.

Why global digital governance is important?

  • The main objective of e-governance is to provide a friendly, affordable, and efficient interface between a government and its people. It is about ensuring greater transparency, accountability, and objectivity, resulting in cost-effective and high-quality public service.
  • Minimum rights and protections for platform workers: Under the G20, the International Labour Organisation has already placed a proposal in the employment working group for digital labour platforms to develop an international governance system determining minimum rights and protections for platform workers.
  • Implementation of central bank digital currency projects: Similarly, on digital money, a reincarnated Bretton Woods is being advocated to address the distrust in private currencies and to coordinate the implementation of central bank digital currency
  • Digital taxation: Finally, in the deeply contested area of digital taxation, the OECD facilitated Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) negotiations and helped arrive at a global solution.
  • Digital sovereignty: The internet is splintering and digital sovereignty is now commonplace; yet, there is no better time for countries to come together and build a framework for global digital governance.

What are the big 5 tech companies called?

  • The Big Five tech giants—Apple, Amazon, Google (Alphabet), Facebook (Meta), and Microsoft which are major stakeholder in the digital world at present.

Initiatives Taken for e-Governance in India:

  • Bhoomi Project (Karnataka): Online Delivery of Land Records: Bhoomi is a self-sustainable e-Governance project for the computerized delivery of 20 million rural land records to 6.7 million farmers of Karnataka.
  • KHAJANE (Karnataka): End-to-end automation of Government Treasury System: It has been implemented mainly to eliminate systemic deficiencies in the manual treasury system and for the efficient management of state finances.
  • e-Seva (Andhra Pradesh): Designed to provide ‘Government to Citizen’ and ‘e-Business to Citizen’ services.
  • e-Courts: launched by the Department of Justice, Ministry of Law, and Justice. The Mission Mode Project (MMP) aims at utilizing technology for improved provisioning of judicial services to citizens.
  • e-District: Launched by the Department of Information Technology. The MMP aims at delivery of high volume, citizen-centric services at the district level such as the issue of birth/death certificate, income and caste certificates, old age, and widow pension, etc
  • MCA21: Launched by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs. The project aims to provide electronic services to the Companies registered under the Companies Act.

Conclusion:

The rapid digitalisation of the world along with a new focus on trust in the global supply chains for digital products and services presents tremendous opportunities for India and its youth.  It is now up to all of us to engage in a collective “sabka prayas” to realise New India’s economic potential.

Source: The Hindu                      


Baba’s Explainer -Sanskritisation

Sanskritisation

Syllabus

  • GS-1: Society

Context: Sanskritisation was a term coined and popularised by M.N. Srinivas, an eminent social anthropologist in his book Religion and Society Among the Coorgs of South India ( 1952) to describe the cultural mobility in the traditional caste structure of Indian society.

Read Complete Details on Sanskritisation


Daily Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) In the context of Indian economy, Shrinkflation refers to

  1. A combination of slow growth, high unemployment, and rising prices in an economy.
  2. An economy undergoing stagnated growth and inflation
  3. Shrinking (reducing) levels of inflation
  4. Package downsizing while keeping price of a consumer good the same

Q.2) Consider the following statements regarding the Criminal Procedure (Identification) Rules, 2022:

  1. The rules explicitly prevent the use of facial recognition technology while allowing the collection of biological samples like fingerprint.
  2. The rules lay down procedure for police and central investigating agencies to collect, store and analyse physical and biological samples including retina and iris scans of arrested persons.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.3) With reference to Asian Development Bank (ADB), consider the following statements:

  1. ADB has more than 60 member countries.
  2. India is the largest shareholder in ADB.
  3. ADB is headquartered in Shanghai, China.

Which of the statements given above is / are correct?

  1. 1 Only
  2. 1 and 2 Only
  3. 2 and 3 Only
  4. 3 Only

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’22nd September 2022 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.


ANSWERS FOR 21st September – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – c

Q.2) – a

Q.3) – b