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Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 27th September 2019
Published on Sept. 27, 2019, 5:30 p.m.

IAS UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 27th September 2019

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(PRELIMS + MAINS FOCUS)


OIC asks India to revoke actions on Kashmir

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS-II –India and world In News
  • India had revoked Article 370 in Jammu & Kashmir which provided the state with special status and bifurcated the state into two Union Territories in August 2019
  • OIC asks India to revoke these actions and provide assurances that it will not change the occupied territory’s demographic composition and not allow non-Kashmiris to acquire property or residency in J&K
  • India position has been that it is an internal matter of India and no need of any international interference in the issue
About OIC
  • The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) is the second largest inter-governmental organisation after the UN, with the membership of 57 states, covering four continents.
  • India overcame a five-decade-old hurdle when it was invited to OIC meet earlier in March 2019 based on India’s ‘global stature’ , ‘islamic component’ and support from UAE, Bangladesh etc

India discusses Chabahar with Iran

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS-II- International relations – India & World In News
  • PM Modi met Iranian President on the sidelines of UNGA meet and discussed about Chahbahar port of Iran, which India is helping to develop
  • Iran’s Chabahar port is a strategic project that would connect India, Afghanistan and Iran to Central Asia, while circumventing Pakistan
  • Iran is facing sanctions from USA after Washington pulled out of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) impacting the progress on port project.
About JCPOA
  • It an international deal to limit Iran’s nuclear program in return for lifting economic sanctions imposed on Iran by West
  • It was signed by Iran and the P5+1 (China France, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) on July 14, 2015
Do you know?
  • India, the world's third biggest oil consumer, meets more than 80 per cent of its oil needs through imports.
  • Iran was its third largest supplier after Iraq and Saudi Arabia till recently when US sanctions has stopped India’s oil trade with Iran

ECI cell to monitor Social Media

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS-II – Model Code of Conduct In News
  • Election Commission of India (ECI) is setting up a dedicated cell to monitor activities on social media platforms ahead of the assembly polls in Maharashtra
  • The cell will mainly be keeping an eye out for three kinds of violations.
    • The first kind is any content being shared that might amount to defamation, rumour-mongering or fake news, and such instances will be forwarded to the concerned police units for further action.
    • The second is violation of the model code of conduct(MCC), which will be reported to the ECI. Example holding live events on Facebook or Instagram when campaigning is forbidden.
    • The third category is of posts that might give rise to law and order problems, in which case they will be removed from the internet.
Do You Know?
  • As per Article 324 of the Indian ConstItution, ECI has the supervisory and directional control of the complete processof election to Parliament and Legislature of every State and to the office of the President and the Vice-President of India.
  • MCC lays down the minimum standards of behaviour for political parties and their candidates contesting elections.
  • The MCC comes into effect as soon as the EC announces the election schedule.
  • MCC doesn’t have statutory backing in the form of legislation but has acquire significance in the past decade, because of its strict enforcement by the EC.

UNSC allows Hafiz Saeed banking access

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS-II –International Organisation
  • The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) 1267 Committee has allowed Pakistan-based UN-designated terrorist Hafiz Saeed limited access to his otherwise sanctioned bank account.
  • The decision is in response to a request made by Pakistan
  • 1267 Committee - a UNSC committee formed in the year 1999,through UNSC resolution 1267, designates and sanctions terrorist entities and individuals.

Tobacco Quitline

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS-II - Health
  • Launched in 2018, QuitLineis a dedicated toll-free number that helps tobacco users to receive free support and guidance to subdue their addiction.
  • The quit-line number must also be printed on all tobacco products manufactured
  • India is the fourth country in Asia after Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore to have this government helpline for those looking at quitting tobacco.
  • Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) -Tobacco use has gone down by 6% from 34.6 per cent of the country's adult population in 2009-10 to 28.6 per cent in 2016-17.
  • The 85% pictorial warnings on all cigarettes, bidis and chewing tobacco packages manufactured and sold in India have resulted in 92% of adults [surveyed under GATS 2016-2017] believing that smoking caused serious illness, and 96% saying that use of smokeless tobacco causes serious illness

Miscellaneous

200th birth anniversary of Pandit Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar

  • It was observed on 26 September
  • He is forerunner of Bengal renaissance, great social reformer (girl education & against Polygamy), writer, educationist and Sanskrit scholar
  • He also rationalized and simplified the Bengali alphabet & type, thus called the father of modern Bengali language.
  • He was instrumental in passage Widow Marriage Act 1856, which gave legal recognition to the marriage of widows.

Dermatoglyphics Multiple Intelligence Test (DMIT)

  • Called as alternative IQ testing method, this test uses the unique fingerprints and dermal ridge patterns of individuals to measure or access intelligence, activate brain lobe functioning and predicting future behaviour.
  • The Indian Psychiatric Society has called such tests as unscientific and cautioned parents to not indulge their children in such activities

(MAINS FOCUS)


CLIMATE CHANGE

TOPIC: General Studies 3:

  • Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation, environmental impact assessment

Climate change action

Context

The UN Climate Change Summit, 2019 was recently held in New York. The key focus of the summit is to accelerate the actions to implement Paris agreement.

Did you know?

  • Climate change is a change in the usual weather found in a place. This could be a change in how much rain a place usually gets in a year. Or it could be a change in a place's usual temperature for a month or season.
  • Climate change is also a change in Earth's climate. This could be a change in Earth's usual temperature. Or it could be a change in where rain and snow usually fall on Earth.

Evidences of  climate change across the world:

  • Sea level rise is accelerating, and oceans have become 26% more acidic since the dawn of the Industrial era.
  • Europe saw the highest temperatures ever in recorded history. (Paris recorded its highest temperature of 42.6°C)
  • Hurricane Dorian rendered large parts of the Bahamas unliveable;
  • simultaneous raging fires in the Amazon, central Africa and even Siberia.
  • heat wave in France and Germany
  • Nearly 500 species have become extinct in just the last century.
  • We are depleting 25% more natural resources than the planet can sustain right now.

Evidences of  climate change across India:

  • Cyclones such as Thane, Vardah, Ockhi and Gaja have affected Tamil Nadu
  • Chennai floods in 2015.
  • Floods in Assam, Himachal Pradesh and Bihar this year
  • Mumbai received record monsoon rains.
  • Kerala witnessed floods for the second consecutive year.
  • Cyclone Fani devastated Odisha, Cyclone Vayu ravaged Gujarat this year.

Causes:

  • indiscriminate use of fossil fuels.
  • The increase in global temperatures started with the industrial revolution
  • Industries, vehicles, burning of fossil fuels, thermal power plants and large-scale rearing of cattle are emitting heat-trapping greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide.
  • The main cause of climate change is global warming, which has many negative consequences on physical, biological and human systems, as well as other effects.

Consequences of the climate change

  • drastically affect agriculture , the production of rice, wheat, maize and soya will decrease significantly
  • give birth to newer infections and illness.
  • This imbalance will in turn affect the economy which will lead to conflict, war and global unrest.
  • sea levels will rise and submerge coastal cities

Way forward:

climate change cannot be avoided. We can mitigate its effects and adapt to its consequences These actions are known as climate change mitigation and adaptation measures. Like

  • launching actions to reduce and limit greenhouse gas emissions with the aim of preventing the global temperature
  • improving infrastructure and making facilities safer and more resilient,
  • reforesting and landscape restoration,
  • water treatment and purification,
  • flexible and varied farming to be prepared for natural catastrophes
  • invest in research and development into the behavior of temperature or possible occurrence of atmospheric phenomena.
  • Research and international collaboration are essential to combat climate change,.like IPCC , Paris agreements ,conference of the Parties (COP) ,the Montreal Protocol The Paris Agreement.

Immediate steps to be taken :

  • The Indian government should declare a climate emergency immediately.
  • Immediate policy changes should include reducing the usage of fossil fuels by half by 2030,
  • encouraging the use of public transport,
  • increasing forest area,
  • promoting non-conventional energy,
  • devising good water management policies,
  • implementing the plastic ban stringently,
  • banning the burning of waste,
  • Promoting innovative urban planning policies and reducing mass rearing of cattle for human consumption.

Conclusion:

  • It is the duty of every human and government to take steps to stop the climate crisis. Let us all join together to save the only planet we have.

Connecting the dots:

  • The Indian government must take corrective measures immediately to combat climate change. Justify

FOOD PROCESSING 

TOPIC:General Studies 2

  • Food processing and related industries in India- scope and significance, location, upstream and downstream requirements, supply chain management.

The food industry’s role in sustainable development

Context:
  • Over 820 million people are chronically hungry.
  • Over two billion suffer from micronutrient deficiencies,
  • Around 650 million adults are obese, (due to ultra-processed foods that are stuffed with sugar, saturated fats and other chemical additives)
Problems with agro-industries:
  • agro-industrial practices are the main cause of deforestation, freshwater depletion and pollution, soil erosion, and the collapse of biodiversity.
  • human-induced climate change is also  caused by the food sector and affecting crop production.
Some facts about Food industry in India:
  • The Food & Grocery market in India is the sixth largest in the world.
  • Food & Grocery retail market in India further constitutes almost 65% of the total retail market in India.
  • The Government of India through the Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MoFPI) is also taking all necessary steps to boost investments in the food processing industry.
  • The government has sanctioned 42 Mega Food Parks (MFPs) to be set up in the country under the Mega Food Park Scheme.
  • By 2024, the Food Processing industry will potentially attract $ 33 bn investments and generate employment for 9 mn people
  • 100% FDI is permitted under the automatic route in Food processing industries.
Remedies:
  • In 2015, all 193 members of the United Nations agreed unanimously to two vital agreements. The first, called Agenda 2030, adopts 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) as a roadmap to human well-being and planetary safety.
  • The second, the Paris climate agreement, commits the world’s governments to taking decisive action to keep global warming to less than 1.50
Both the SDGs and the Paris agreement require decisive changes in practices by the food industry. How SDG helps?
  • SDG tackles overconsumption and food waste is essential in ensuring sustainable consumption and production patterns,( The food wasted in Europe alone would be enough to feed all the hungry people in the world two times over) ,Reducing food waste would also minimize environmental impacts generated by the agriculture.
Present scenario:
  • Very few industries report on the healthfulness of their product lines or how their products contribute to healthy and sustainable dietary patterns.
  • Very few industries recognize that they are part of the environmental crisis
  • Industries don’t report in detail on their tax practices.
What must be done? All companies in the food sector to adopt clear guidelines, metrics and reporting standards to align with the global goals
  • The industry has to change to promote healthy diets.
  • the company’s production practices must be sustainable
Ex: many companies are engaged in chemical pollution, massive waste from packaging, deforestation, excessive and poorly targeted fertilizer use, and other environmental ills.
  • the company’s upstream suppliers must be sustainable i.e No consumer food company should use products from farms that contribute to deforestation.
  • aggressive tax practices that exploit legal loopholes should be avoided, as they deprive governments of the revenues needed to promote SDGs.
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
  • The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a collection of 17 global goals set by the United Nations General Assembly in 2015 for the year 2030. (the 2030 Agenda)

Conclusion:

  • Feeding a planet of 7.7 billion people is no easy matter. Every person on the planet needs, expects, and has the right to a healthy diet. Every farmer needs, expects, and has the right to a decent livelihood. world leaders must keep in mind one crucial fact that  the world’s people are demanding change. We have the know-how and wealth to achieve a prosperous, inclusive, and sustainable world.

Connecting the dots:

  • Decisive changes in today’s agro-industrial practices are needed to ensure the environmental crisis does not get any worse. Analyse

(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in comment section)

Note: 

  • Featured Comments and comments Up-voted by IASbaba are the “correct answers”.
  • IASbaba App users – Team IASbaba will provide correct answers in comment section. Kindly refer to it and update your answers.
Q.1)Consider the following statements about Organisation of Islamic Cooperation(OIC)
  1. It is the second largest inter-governmental organisation after the UN, with the membership of 57 states, covering four continents.
  2. India became a member of this organisation in March 2019
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2)Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action often seen in news is related to which of the following area?
  1. Trade agreement between Asia-Pacific countries
  2. Counter terrorism action in Syria
  3. Nuclear restrictions on Iran
  4. None of the above

Q.3)Chabahar port is located in which country?
  1. Pakistan
  2. Iraq
  3. Iran
  4. None of the above

Q.4)Consider the following statements about Model Code of Conduct(MCC)
  1. The MCC comes into effect as soon as the Election Commission announces the election schedule.
  2. MCC has statutory backing through Representation of People Act, 1951
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
  1. 1 only
  2. 2only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.5)Consider the following statements about 1267 Committee
  1. It is a committee formed in the year 1999, under inter-governmental organisation FATF (Financial Action Task force)
  2. It designates and sanctions terrorist entities and individuals
Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?
  1. 1 only
  2. 2only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

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