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Published on Feb 28, 2024
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DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 28th February 2024






  • Prelims – Current event

Context: Gaganyaan astronaut designates received ‘astronaut wings’ from PM Modi


  • Group Captain Prasanth Balakrishnan Nair, Group Captain Ajit Krishnan, Group Captain Angad Pratap and Wing Commander Shubhanshu Shukla – the four Indian Air Force (IAF) pilots are the ‘astronaut designates’ who have been undergoing training for India’s Gaganyaan mission, planned for 2025.Only three of them will eventually go to space as part of the Gaganyaan mission.

About Gaganyaan:-  

  • Gaganyaan project envisages demonstration of human spaceflight capability by launching crew of 3 members to an orbit of 400 km (low earth orbit) for a 3 days mission and bring them back safely to earth, by landing in Indian sea waters.
  • The Gaganyaan Mission is India’s first human space flight programme
  • India will become only the fourth country to send a human into space after the Soviet Union, the US and China.
  • LVM3 rocket – The well proven and reliable heavy lift launcher of ISRO, is identified as the launch vehicle for Gaganyaan mission. It consists of solid stage, liquid stage and cryogenic stage. All systems in LVM3 launch vehicle are re-configured to meet human rating requirements and christened Human Rated LVM3.
  • HLVM3 consists of Crew Escape System (CES) powered by a set of quick acting, high burn rate solid motors which ensures that Crew Module along with crew is taken to a safe distance in case of any emergency either at launch pad or during ascent phase.
  • Orbital Module (OM) that will be Orbiting Earth comprises of Crew Module (CM) and Service Module (SM).
  • CM is the habitable space with Earth like environment in space for the crew.

Source: ISRO

Previous Year Questions (PYQs)

Q.1) With reference to India’s satellite launch  vehicles, consider the following statements (2018)

  1. PSLVs launch the satellites useful for Earth resources monitoring whereas GSLVs are designed mainly to launch communication satellites.
  2. Satellites launched by PSLV appear to remain permanently fixed in the same position in the sky, as viewed from a particular location on Earth.
  3. GSLV Mk III is a four-staged launch l vehicle with the first and third stages l using solid rocket motors; and the second and fourth stages using liquid rocket engines.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 2
  4. 3 only



  • Prelims and Mains – Polity

Context: President Murmu appoints ex-SC judge Justice AM Khanwilkar as Chairperson of Lokpal


  • The Lokpal and Lokayukta Act, 2013 provided for the establishment of Lokpal for the Union and Lokayukta for States.These institutions are statutory bodies without any constitutional status.The apex Institution was created to inquire and investigate complaints relating to allegation of corruption involving public functionaries and elected representatives.

About Lokpal:

  • The Lokpal is the first institution of its kind in independent India,established under the Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act 2013 to inquire and investigate into allegations of corruption against public functionaries who fall within the scope and ambit of the above Act.
  • The Lokpal has jurisdiction to inquire into allegations of corruption against anyone who is or has been Prime Minister, or a Minister in the Union government, or a Member of Parliament, as well as officials of the Union Government under Groups A, B, C and D. Also covered are chairpersons members, officers and directors of any board, corporation, society, trust or autonomous body either established by an Act of Parliament or wholly or partly funded by the Union or State government. It also covers any society or trust or body that receives foreign contribution above ₹10 lakh (approx. US$ 14,300/- as of 2019).
  • A complaint under the Lokpal Act should be in the prescribed form and must pertain to an offence under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 against a public servant.
  • There is no restriction on who can make such a complaint. When a complaint is received, the Lokpal may order a preliminary inquiry by its Inquiry Wing or any other agency, or refer it for investigation by any agency, including the CBI, if there is a prima facie case.
  • The Inquiry Wing or any other agency will have to complete its preliminary inquiry and submit a report to the Lokpal within 60 days.
  • A Lokpal Bench shall consider the preliminary inquiry report, and after giving an opportunity to the public servant accused of corruption for his/her defence, decide whether it should proceed with the investigation. It can order a full investigation, or direct to start departmental proceedings or close the proceedings. It may also proceed against the complainant if the allegation is false.
  • Lokpal will have power of superintendence and direction over any central investigation agency including CBI for cases referred to them by the Lokpal.
  • The Chairperson and the Members are appointed by the President of India by warrant under his hand and seal and hold office for a term of five years from the date on which they enter upon the office or until they attain the age of 70 years, whichever is earlier.
  • The chairperson and members of the Lokpal are appointed by the President after obtaining the recommendations of a Selection Committee comprising prime minister, speaker of low Sabha, leader of opposition in lok Sabha, Chief Justice of India or a Judge nominated by him/her and one eminent jurist.
  • Apart from a chairperson, the Lokpal can have eight members — four judicial and as many non-judicial.

Source: Lokpal



  • Prelims- Environment

Context: According to a recent study by the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the European Union’s (EU) forthcoming Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) is anticipated to yield only marginal reductions in global carbon emissions while modestly affecting trade flows, particularly in Asia and the Pacific.


  • The European Union’s (EU) Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) is a significant initiative aimed at addressing climate change on a global scale.


  • The European Union’s Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) is a tool designed to put a fair price on the carbon emitted during the production of carbon-intensive goods that are entering the EU.
  • It aims to encourage cleaner industrial production in non-EU countries by ensuring that the carbon price of imports is equivalent to the carbon price of domestic production.
  • It aims to equalize the price of carbon between domestic and imported products in the affected sectors.
  • The mechanism is designed to be compatible with WTO rules.
  • CBAM will apply in its definitive regime from 2026, while the current transitional phase lasts between 2023 and 2026.

Definitive Regime (from 2026):

  • EU importers of goods covered by CBAM will register with national authorities.
  • They will buy CBAM certificates, with prices calculated based on the weekly average auction price of EU ETS allowances (expressed in €/tonne of CO₂ emitted).
  • Importers will declare the emissions embedded in their imports and surrender the corresponding number of certificates annually.
  • If importers can prove that a carbon price has already been paid during the production of the imported goods, the corresponding amount can be deducted.

Transitional Phase (2023 – 2026):

  • CBAM initially applies to imports of certain goods and selected precursors with carbon-intensive production processes.
  • These goods include cement, iron and steel, aluminium, fertilisers, electricity, and hydrogen.
  • The objective during this period is to serve as a pilot and learning phase for all stakeholders.

Impact on India

  • The European Union’s Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM) could have significant impacts on India, particularly in sectors such as steel, cement, fertilizers, hydrocarbons, electricity, and aluminum.

Key Points:

  • Increased Export Duties: The CBAM will allow the EU to charge tariffs on carbon-intensive imports from 20261. This could translate into a 20-35% tax on steel, aluminum, and cement imports into the EU.
  • Impact on Trade: Despite India’s lower per capita emissions, the CBAM may result in lower demand for Indian exports, leading to trade diversion from India. This could disrupt businesses until the Indian industry reduces carbon emissions and improves technology.
  • Disclosure of Carbon Emissions: Indian companies in sectors such as steel, cement, fertilizer, aluminum, and hydrocarbon production will be required to disclose their carbon emissions data to the EU.
  • Potential Impact on Trade Competitiveness: The increased export duties could potentially impact India’s trade competitiveness.
  • Financial Impact: In particular, exports of steel and aluminum from India could be impacted to the tune of around US $8 billion

Source: The Hindu



  • Prelims : Current Event

Context: Recently, Kazakhstan’s President called on the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) to assist in managing ongoing protests within the country.


  • These protests posed a threat to the very existence of the regime that has governed Kazakhstan since it became an independent republic in 1991

About Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO):

  • The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) is an intergovernmental military alliance in Eurasia.
  • It consists of six post-Soviet states: Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, and Tajikistan.
  • The CSTO was formed in 2002 and its origins can be traced back to the Soviet Armed Force.
  • The CSTO’s headquarters is located in the Russian capital of Moscow.

Key aspects of the CSTO include:

  • Collective Defence: Similar to Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty, Article 4 of the Collective Security Treaty establishes that an aggression against one signatory would be perceived as an aggression against all.
  • Peacekeeping Force: The CSTO maintains a peacekeeping force that has been deployed to areas of conflict, including Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. The force is composed of troops from member states and is designed to provide stability and security in the region.
  • Military Exercises: The CSTO holds yearly military command exercises for the CSTO nations to improve inter-organizational cooperation.
  • Membership Restrictions: Signatories are prohibited from joining other military alliances.
  • Operational Procedures: The CSTO employs a “rotating presidency” system in which the country leading the CSTO alternates every year.

Source: Indian Express



  • Prelims and Mains – GS3

Context: Garuda Aerospace highlights Precision Farming with Kisan Drone at Krishi Darshan Expo.


  • Krishi Darshan Expo 2024 hosted by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, served as a comprehensive platform for showcasing the latest agricultural technologies and innovations.

About Precision farming

  • Precision farming, also known as precision agriculture (PA), is a farming management strategy that leverages information technology to enhance agricultural production sustainability.
  • Precision farming involves observing, measuring, and responding to temporal and spatial variability within fields and livestock systems.
  • The goal is to optimize returns on inputs while preserving resources.

How It Works?

  • Instead of applying uniform inputs across the entire field, precision farming tailors’ interventions to specific areas based on their unique needs.
  • Technologies such as GPS, GNSS, and sensor arrays enable precise data collection related to factors like crop yield, terrain features, organic matter content, moisture levels, and nutrient levels.
  • Unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) equipped with cameras capture multispectral images, which aid in creating detailed maps for analysis.


  • Increased crop yields and animal performance.
  • Cost reduction, including labour costs.
  • Optimized resource allocation


  • Varying fertilizer application based on soil nutrient levels.
  • Adjusting irrigation based on moisture data.
  • Mapping crop health using multispectral imagery.
  • Monitoring livestock behaviour and health

Previous Year Question

Q1. In the context of India, which of the following is/are considered to be practice(s) of the eco-friendly agriculture?

  1. Crop diversification
  2. Legume intensification
  3. Tensiometer use
  4. Vertical farming

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

  1. 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Source: Krishi Jagran



  • Prelims – Current Event

Context: United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) has recently raised an alarm over escalating disruptions in shipping routes for global trade in a new report.


  • The recent report titled “Navigating Troubled Waters: The Impact to Global Trade of Disruption of Shipping Routes in the Red Sea, The Black Sea, and the Panama Canal” highlights critical issues affecting trade patterns.

About United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD):

  • The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) is an intergovernmental organization within the United Nations Secretariat that promotes the interests of developing countries in world trade.
  • It was established by the United Nations General Assembly in 1964.
  • UNCTAD’s primary objective is to formulate policies relating to all aspects of development, including trade, aid, transport, finance, and technology.
  • UNCTAD was created in response to concerns among developing countries that existing international institutions like GATT (now replaced by the World Trade Organization), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the World Bank were not properly organized to handle the particular problems of developing countries.
  • One of UNCTAD’s principal achievement was conceiving and implementing the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), which promotes the export of manufactured goods from developing countries.
  • The Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) is a preferential tariff system that provides duty-free and quota-free market access for exports from developing countries to major export markets.
  • The headquarters of UNCTAD are located at the Palais des Nations in Geneva.
  • It has 195 member states, including all UN members plus UN observer states Palestine and the Holy See.

Source: Down To Earth

Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q1.) In the context of Indian Agriculture, which of the following is/are considered to be the precision farming practice(s)?

  1. Varying fertilizer application based on soil nutrient levels.
  2. Adjusting irrigation based on moisture data.
  3. Mapping crop health using multispectral imagery.
  4. Monitoring livestock behaviour and health.

Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All four

Q2.) Consider the following countries:

  1. Armenia
  2. Azerbaijan
  3. Russia
  4. Ukraine
  5. Afghanistan
  6. Kazakhstan

How many of the above-mentioned countries are members of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO)?

  1. Only two
  2. Only three
  3. Only four
  4. Only five

Q3.)With reference to the European Union’s Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM), consider the following statements:

  1. CBAM encourages cleaner industrial production in non-EU countries.
  2. The CBAM will allow the EU to charge tariffs on carbon-intensive imports from 2026.
  3. It aims to equalize the price of carbon between domestic and imported products in the affected sectors.

How many of the above statements are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’  28th February  2024 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR  27th February – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – c

Q.2) – c

Q.3) – c