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DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 2nd April 2024




Vaikom Satyagraha


  • Prelims & Mains – History

Context: Hundred years happened since the famous Vaikom Satyagraha-the first among temple entry movements.


  • Vaikom, a temple town in the princely state of Travancore, saw the start of a non-violent agitation on March 30, 1924 — the first among temple entry movements that would soon sweep across the country.

About Vaikom satyagraha

  • The princely state of Travancore had a feudal, militaristic, and ruthless system of custom-ridden government.
  • The idea of caste pollution worked not only on the basis of touch but also sight — lower castes were forbidden entry to any “pure” place, such as temples and the roads surrounding them.
  • The second half of the 19th century, Travancore saw several social and political developments ushering in unprecedented social change.
  • First, Christian missionaries converted large sections of lower castes seeking to escape the clutches of caste oppression. Second, the reign of Maharaja Ayilyam Thirunal Rama Varma (1860-80) saw many progressive reforms, such as universal free primary education — including for the lower castes.
  • While religion and custom remained pervasive, the absolute material and intellectual deprivations of lower castes did not continue. The Ezhavas, in particular, emerged as the most educated and organised untouchable community in Travancore.
  • While a small Ezhava elite had started to emerge, in many cases, the ritual discrimination, overrode material and educational progress.
  • The issue of temple entry was first raised by Ezhava leader T K Madhavan in a 1917 editorial in his paper Deshabhimani.
  • It was the entry of the Indian National Congress into the picture that changed the dynamics. Madhavan met Gandhi in 1921, and secured the Mahatma’s support for a mass agitation to enter temples.
  • In the 1923 session of the INC in Kakinada, a resolution was passed by the Kerala Provincial Congress Committee to take up anti-untouchability as a key issue. This was followed by a massive public messaging campaign and a movement to open Hindu temples and all public roads to avarnas. Vaikom, with its revered Shiva temple, was chosen as the location for the very first satyagraha.
  • Madhavan and other leaders took the strategic decision to initially focus on opening up the four roads around the temple — not the temple itself — to avarnas.They were promptly stopped and arrested. So, the next morning, another three men entered the forbidden roads and courted arrest. This went on every day — until the police stopped making arrests and barricaded the whole area instead.
  • From then through September, protesters sat in front of the barricades, fasting and singing patriotic songs. Leaders such as Periyar and C Rajagopalachari came to Vaikom to offer support and lead the protesters. At the same time, counter-agitations raged on.
  • In March 1925, Gandhi was finally able to iron out a compromise: three out of the four roads surrounding the temples were opened up for everyone, but the fourth (eastern) road was kept reserved for brahmins. This was finally implemented in November 1925, when the government completed diversionary roads that could be used by the low castes “without polluting the temple”. The last satyagrahi was recalled from Vaikom on November 23, 1925.
  • The Vaikom satyagraha was a remarkable movement, which sustained itself for over 600 days, amidst hostile social forces, police crackdowns, and one of the worst floods in the town’s history in 1924.
  • The final compromise disappointed many. Famously, Periyar, who had envisioned a far more spectacular outcome, fell out with Gandhi over the issue.
  • In November 1936, the Maharaja of Travancore signed the historic Temple Entry Proclamation which removed the age-old ban on the entry of marginalised castes into the temples of the state.This, along with the demonstration of Gandhian methods of civil disobedience as effective tools of protest, was the great success of the Vaikom satyagraha.

Source: The Indian Express

Havana syndrome


  • Prelims – Current Event

Context: Russia dismissed a joint media investigation which found evidence that a Russian military intelligence unit might be responsible for the mysterious health condition known as ‘Havana syndrome’ that affected US diplomats and spies across the world.


  • Havana syndrome typically involves symptoms such as hearing certain sounds without any outside noise, nausea, vertigo and headaches, memory loss, and balance issues.

About Havana syndrome

  • Havana syndrome refers to a set of mental health symptoms that are said to be experienced by United States intelligence and embassy officials in various countries.
  • Generally, the word ‘syndrome’ simply means a set of symptoms. It does not mean a unique medical condition, but rather a set of symptoms that are usually experienced together whose origins may be difficult to confirm.
  • Havana syndrome typically involves symptoms such as hearing certain sounds without any outside noise, nausea, vertigo and headaches, memory loss, and balance issues.
  • As the name suggests, it traces its roots to Cuba in late 2016. This was about a year after the US opened its embassy in the capital city of Havana after ties between the two countries were normalised in 2015.
  • Some US intelligence officials and members of the staff at the embassy began experiencing sudden bursts of pressure in their brains followed by persistent headaches, feelings of disorientation and insomnia.
  • Since the Cuban incident, American intelligence and foreign affairs officials posted in various countries have reported symptoms of the syndrome.

What did the investigation find?

  • The investigation claims that members of a Russian military intelligence unit, called 29155, could have targeted the brains of US officials by using “directed energy” weapons.
  • The 29155 unit, which has been operational for more than a decade, has been previously accused of carrying out foreign assassination, subversion, and sabotage.

What are the causes of Havana syndrome?

  • Study by scientists in the US and examination of the victims began to suggest that they may have been subjected to high-powered microwaves that either damaged or interfered with the nervous system. It was said to have built pressure inside the brain that generated the feeling of a sound being heard.
  • Greater exposure to high-powered microwaves is said not only to interfere with the body’s sense of balance but also to impact memory and cause permanent brain damage. Low levels of microwaves are also emitted from mobile phones but they are not targeted.

Source: Indian Express



  • Prelims- Current Event

Context: Recently, CERN launched the White Rabbit Collaboration.


  • CERN, officially known as the European Organization for Nuclear Research, stands as one of the world’s most esteemed centers for scientific exploration. Its core mission revolves around fundamental physics, aiming to unravel the mysteries of the Universe and decipher its composition and workings.


  • White Rabbit (WR) is an innovative technology developed at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research).
  • It provides sub-nanosecond accuracy and picoseconds precision for synchronization in various applications.
  • The technology is open source, adheres to standards, and has been integrated into the Precision Time Protocol (PTP), a worldwide industry standard governed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
  • Its applications extend beyond particle physics, making it a powerful example of open-source collaboration and innovation.

Applications Beyond Particle Physics:

  • Finance Sector: White Rabbit is already used in financial systems.
  • Research Infrastructures: It finds applications in various research facilities.
  • Future Quantum Internet: Evaluation for use in the future quantum internet.
  • Global Time Dissemination: Potential role in global time dissemination technologies, reducing reliance on satellites.

Source: CERN



  • Prelims : Current Event

Context: Geologists predict that the African continent’s rift in the Afar Triangle could lead to the formation of a new ocean in 5 to 10 million years.


  • Over millions of years, this rift could continue to widen and eventually fill with seawater, leading to the formation of a new ocean. However, this is a process that would take millions of years and is based on current geological understanding and predictions. It’s a fascinating example of how our planet is constantly changing and evolving.


  • The Afar Triangle, also known as the Afar Depression, is a geological depression situated in the Horn of Africa.
  • The Afar Triangle, located in the northeastern part of Africa, is one of the most geologically active regions in the world.
  • It’s here that the Arabian, Nubian, and Somali tectonic plates are moving apart from each other. This movement has created a rift system, which is causing the African continent to split.

Geological Context:

  • The Afar Triangle is caused by the Afar Triple Junction, which is part of the Great Rift Valley in East Africa.
  • It overlaps the borders of Eritrea, Djibouti, and the entire Afar Region of Ethiopia.
  • The region is characterized by its unique geological features and has revealed fossil specimens of the earliest hominins—the earliest members of the human clade.
  • Some paleontologists consider it the cradle of human evolution.

Geographical Highlights:

  • The Afar Triangle contains Lake Assal in Djibouti, which is the lowest point in Africa, lying 155 meters (509 feet) below sea level.
  • The Awash River flows into the region, providing a narrow green belt that sustains flora, fauna, and the nomadic Afar people living in the Danakil Desert.
  • The northern part of the Afar Depression is also known as the Danakil Depression.
  • The area experiences extreme heat, drought, and minimal air circulation, making it one of the hottest places on Earth year-round.

Source: Times of India



  • Prelims – Polity

Context: The Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016 (RERA), which was passed by Parliament eight years ago, is currently under review by the Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.


  • As part of this review, senior officials have initiated regular meetings with homebuyers to gather feedback on the Act’s effectiveness. These meetings aim to assess key dimensions such as transparency, accountability, information dissemination, and grievance redressal.

About The Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016:

  • The Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016 (RERA) is a significant legislation passed by the Indian Parliament to regulate and promote the real estate sector in the country.

Purpose and Establishment:

  • RERA aims to protect homebuyers and enhance transparency and efficiency in real estate transactions.
  • It establishes a Real Estate Regulatory Authority (RERA) in each state, serving as an adjudicating body for quick dispute resolution.


  • RERA applies to under-construction projects with either of the following criteria:
  • Plot size exceeding 500 square meters.
  • Projects with 8 apartments or more.

Salient Provisions:

  • Mandatory Registration: All real estate projects falling under the specified criteria must be registered with RERA.
  • Fast-Track Dispute Resolution: RERA sets up an appellate tribunal and dedicated adjudicating officers for settling disputes efficiently.
  • Consent for Transfer: If a promoter wishes to transfer rights and liabilities to a third party, written consent from two-thirds of allottees and RERA approval are required.
  • Complaint Mechanism: Individuals can file complaints with RERA regarding violations by promoters, buyers, or agents.

Penalties for Non-Compliance:

  • Promoters failing to follow RERA orders may face penalties up to 5% of the evaluated property cost.
  • Non-compliance with Appellate Tribunal orders can result in imprisonment or fines.


  • Civil courts have no jurisdiction over matters covered by RERA or the Appellate Tribunal.

Source: Indian Express

Status of Leopards in India 2022


  • Mains – GS 3

Context: The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has released a report on the Status of Leopards in India 2022. The survey covered 20 States of India and focused on about 70% of the animals’ expected habitat.


  • The fifth cycle leopard population estimation was carried out by the National Tiger Conservation Authority and Wildlife Institute of India, in collaboration with State Forest Departments.

Key Highlights of the Report on the Status of Leopards in India 2022:

  • India’s leopard population rose by 8% from 12,852 in 2018 to 13,874 in 2022. About 65% of the leopard population is present outside protected areas in the Shivalik landscape. Only about a third of the leopards are within protected areas.
  • Central India shows a stable or slightly growing population of leopards (2018: 8071, 2022: 8820), Shivalik hills and Gangetic plains experienced decline (2018: 1253, 2022: 1109). In Shivalik hills and Gangetic plains, there is a 3.4% decline per annum, while the largest growth rate was in Central India and Eastern Ghats at 1.5%.
  • Madhya Pradesh has the highest number of leopards (3,907), followed by Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu.
  • In Odisha, the number of leopards dropped from 760 in 2018 to 562 in 2022, and in Uttarakhand, the population declined from 839 in 2018 to 652 in 2022. Kerala, Telangana, Chhattisgarh, Bihar, and Goa too reported population declines.
  • The Central India and Eastern Ghats landscape is home to the largest population of leopards, which is growing due to protective measures within the framework of tiger conservation.
  • The report highlights that leopard densities are higher in Tiger Reserves compared to areas outside Protected Areas, despite the regulatory pressure exerted by tigers on leopards.
  • Common threats are poaching of prey for bush meat, targeted poaching for tiger and leopard skins and body parts, and habitat loss due to mining and other human activities.
  • In Odisha, as many as 59 leopard skins were seized from wildlife smugglers between 2018 and 2023. Additionally, road accidents are a significant cause of leopard fatalities.


Practice MCQs

Daily Practice MCQs

Q1.) With reference to White Rabbit (WR) technology, consider the following statements:

  1. White Rabbit technology is developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research.
  2. It provides sub-nanosecond accuracy and picoseconds precision for synchronization in various applications.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q2.)  Afar Triangle, recently  seen in news is located in

  1. Crimean Peninsula
  2. Golan Heights
  3. Horn of Africa
  4. Nagorno-Karabakh

Q3.)With reference to the Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016 (RERA), consider the following statements:

  1. RERA aims to protect homebuyers and enhance transparency and efficiency in real estate transactions.
  2. It establishes a Real Estate Regulatory Authority (RERA) in each state.
  3. RERA sets up an appellate tribunal and dedicated adjudicating officers for settling disputes efficiently.

How many of the statements given above are correct?

  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None

Comment the answers to the above questions in the comment section below!!

ANSWERS FOR ’  2nd  April  2024 – Daily Practice MCQs’ will be updated along with tomorrow’s Daily Current Affairs.st

ANSWERS FOR  1st April – Daily Practice MCQs

Answers- Daily Practice MCQs

Q.1) – d

Q.2) – b

Q.3) – d