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Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 2nd December 2019
Published on Dec. 2, 2019, 7:17 p.m.

IAS UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 2nd December 2019

Archives


(PRELIMS + MAINS FOCUS)


WORLD AIDS DAY

Part of: GS Prelims and GS-I – Society

In News

  • The World AIDS Day 2019 was observed in India on the 1st of December.
  • It is a pandemic disease caused due to the infection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
  • World AIDS Day was the first global health day to be celebrated. 
  • This year, the theme is "Communities Make the Difference." 
  • As per the latest estimate of 2017, there are around 21.40 lakh people living with HIV in the country. The government is implementing National AIDS Control Programme (NACP) as a hundred per cent Central Sector Scheme for prevention and control of AIDS. 
  • NACP response to HIV epidemic comprise a comprehensive three-pronged strategy of prevention, testing and treatment. 
  • The Government has also developed a seven-year National Strategic Plan from 2017 to 2024 to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal of ending AIDS as a public health threat by 2030.

HORNBILL FESTIVAL

Part of: GS Prelims and GS-I – Culture

In News

  • The 20th Edition of Hornbill Festival began at Naga Heritage Kisama in Nagaland
  • It is annually held from 1 - 10 December.The first festival was held in 2000.
  • The festival organised by Nagaland Government is an annual tourism promotional event to showcase the state’s traditional and rich cultural heritage in all its ethnicity, diversity and grandeur.
  • The Objective is to encourage inter-tribal interaction and to promote cultural heritage of Nagaland.
  • Highlights of the Hornbill Festival will witness cultural performance of different tribes of Nagaland and Northeastern States, indigenous games, city tour, night carnival, art exhibition, photo-fest and many more.
  • One of the major highlights of this festival is the Hornbill International Rock Festival where local and international rock bands perform.

EXERCISE SURYA KIRAN – XIV

Part of: GS Prelims and GS Mains III- International Relations

In News

  • Joint military exercise ‘SURYA KIRAN – XIV’ between India and Nepal will be conducted in Nepal from 03 to 16 December 2019.
  • It is an annual event which is conducted alternatively in Nepal and India.
  • The aim of this exercise is to conduct a Battalion level combined training between Indian Army and Nepal Army to increase interoperability in jungle warfare and counter terrorist operations in mountainous terrain, humanitarian assistance and disaster relief etc.

JNANPITH AWARD

Part of: GS Prelims and GS Mains I - Culture

In News

  • Eminent Malayalam poet Akkitham Achuthan Namboothiri, popularly known as Akkitham, has been chosen for the 55th Jnanpith Award.
  • A Padma Shri awardee, he has won several literary accolades including the Sahitya Akademi Award (1973), Kerala Sahitya Akademi Award (1972 and 1988), Mathrubhumi Award etc

Jnanpith Award

  • It is given by Bharatiya Jnanpith, a literary and research organization based in Delhi.
  • It is given annually to an author for their "outstanding contribution towards literature".
  • It is bestowed only on Indian writers writing in Indian languages included in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India and English.
  • There are no posthumous conferral. Also only works published during the preceding twenty years is considered for the award.
  • The award consists of cash prize is ₹11 lakh and a Bronze replica of Saraswati, the Hindu goddess of knowledge and wisdom.

Shipping Ministry approves Loktak Inland Water ways project

Part of: GS Prelims and GS Mains III – Economy

In News

  • The Shipping Ministry gave approval for the development of Loktak Inland Water ways improvement project in Manipur under the central sector scheme
  • The estimated cost of the project is over 25 crore rupees. 
  • The Loktak Lake is the largest fresh water lake in North east located at Moirang in Manipur.
  • The project will develop the Inland water transport connectivity in North East States and give boost to the tourism sector also.

Do You Know?

  • Loktak Lake is famous for the phumdis floating over it. Phumdis are a series of floating islands, exclusive to the Loktak Lake in Manipur. They are heterogeneous masses of vegetation, soil and organic matter, in different stages of decay.
  • It has been designated as a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention in 1990.
  • It is also listed under the Montreux Record in 1993, "a record of Ramsar sites where changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring or are likely to occur".

OPERATION CLEAN ART

Part of: GS Prelims and GS Mains III –Environment Conservation

In News

  • Operation Clean Art was recently conducted in India to ensure that the mongoose hair brush trade be closed down across the country.
  • It was the first pan India operation to crack down on the smuggling of mongoose hair in the country.
  • It was conceived by Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB).
  • It was a planned raid, not to apprehend criminals, but to check on organised factories that were making paint brushes with mongoose hair.
  • Raids were carried out not only in Uttar Pradesh, but also at Jaipur in Rajasthan, Mumbai and Pune in Maharashtra, and in Kerala, on the same day. The entire operation across the country yielded 54,352 brushes and 113 kg of raw hair
  • Mongoose hair is in high demand among artists worldwide because of the quality of brushes they help create, which define lines clearly and hold paint properly. India is a major source for these brushes. For about 150 kg of mongoose hair, at least 6,000 animals would have been killed
  • The mongoose is listed under Schedule II of the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 - making its hunting, possession, transportation and trade a punishable offence
[caption id="attachment_53795" align="aligncenter" width="389"]Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 2nd December 2019 Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 2nd December 2019[/caption] Src: Click here

(MAINS FOCUS) 


SOCIAL JUSTICE/ S & T 

TOPIC 

General Studies- II 

  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources. 

General Studies- III 

  • Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life  

Battling anti-microbial resistance 

Context:  

  • Recently (Nov 18-24) world observed Antibiotic Awareness Week
  • It is one of the WHO Campaigns. 
  • The campaign highlights best practices among the general public, health workers and policy makers to help stop the further emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. 
  • It is observed in the month of November  

Antibiotics 

  • Antibiotics, also known as antibacterials, are medications that destroy or slow down the growth of bacteria.  
  • Antibiotics have saved millions of lives till date. 
  • In humans antibiotics are primarily used for treating patients, 
  • In Animals they are used as growth promoters often because they offer economic shortcuts that can replace hygienic practices. 

Present antibiotics becoming ineffective 

  • Many infectious diseases have ceased to respond to antibiotics.  
  • In their quest for survival and propagation, common bugs develop a variety of mechanisms to develop antimicrobial resistance (AMR). 
  • The indiscriminate use of antibiotics is the greatest driver in selection and propagation of resistant bugs. 

AMR  

  • Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is the ability of a microorganism (like bacteria, viruses, and some parasites) to stop an antimicrobial (such as antibiotics, antivirals and antimalarials) from working against it. As a result, standard treatments become ineffective, infections persist and may spread to others. 
  • AMR has been recognised worldwide as an important public health challenge with serious impact on economy and development. 
  • AMR is a man made disaster by the Irresponsible use of antibiotics which is rampant in human health, animal health, fisheries, and agriculture. Globally, use of antibiotics in animals is expected to increase by 67% by 2030 from 2010 levels. 
  • AMR can lead to further complications such as  
    • Minor untreatable infections can become fatal 
    • Complex surgeries such as organ transplantation and cardiac bypass might become difficult to undertake because of untreatable infectious complications that may result post-surgery. 

Can new anitbiotics be developed? 

  • No new class of antibiotics has been discovered in the past three decades 
  • The pipeline for the discovery, development and dissemination of new antibiotics has virtually dried out, the reason being for the development of new anti-biotics it takes about 10-12 years and an investment of $1 billion. 
  • Even if developed once it comes into the market, its indiscriminate use swiftly results in resistance, rendering it useless. 

Steps taken globally: 

  • Every year, World Antibiotic Awareness Week (WAAW) is observed by governments, health facilities, schools and communities across the globe in the month of November. 
  • The Sustainable Development Goals have highlighted the importance of containing AMR.  
  • Various economic and political platforms such as  UN general Assembly, G7, G20, EU, ASEAN etc have dealt with the subject of containing AMR 
  • O’Neill report on AMR  
  • Global Action Plan on AMR 

Steps taken by India: 

Government of India has taken a number of steps that will contribute to global efforts to preserve and prolong the efficacy of antibiotics such as  

  • Bringing out its National Action Plan on AMR (NAP) in 2017.  
  • Surveillance networks have been established in human health and animal health.  
  • In July,  the Indian government banned the manufacture, sale and use of colistin in the poultry industry.  
  • The FAO has assisted India in forging the 'Indian Network for Fishery and Animals Antimicrobial Resistance' for the generation of reliable data on the magnitude of the problem and monitoring trends in response to control activities. 

Issues in India: 

The health of humans and animals falls in State list which adds complexity to the nationwide response 

Need in the future: 

  • World must launch a global movement to contain AMR which will include the capacity augmentation  for regulatory mechanisms, infection control practices and diagnostics support, availability and use of guidelines for therapy, biosecurity in animal rearing practices and understanding the role of the environment and the engagement of communities. 
  • Implementation of India’s NAP needs to be accelerated. 
[caption id="attachment_53794" align="aligncenter" width="234"]Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 2nd December 2019 Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 2nd December 2019[/caption]

Source: React group

O’Neill report on AMR 

  • The Review on Antimicrobial Resistance, often referred to as the O’Neill Commission, was commissioned by the UK Prime Minister David Cameron and is chaired by esteemed economist Jim O’Neill.  
  • This report examines the need to boost the development of new antibiotic drugs, and proposes national and international strategies that will meet those needs, including reforms to the current economic models surrounding antibiotic development and sales.  
  • Published in 2016 
  • It has stated that inaction in containing AMR is likely to result in annual mortality reaching 10 million people and a 3.5% fall in global GDP by 2050. 

Global Action Plan on AMR 

  • In 2015 World Health Assembly endorsed a global action plan to tackle antimicrobial resistance as a part of the tripartite collaboration with World Health Organization, Food and Agricultural Organization, and World Organization for Animal Health. 
  • five strategic objectives 
    • to improve awareness and understanding of antimicrobial resistance; 
    • to strengthen knowledge through surveillance and research; 
    • to reduce the incidence of infection; 
    • to optimize the use of antimicrobial agents;  
    • develop the economic case for sustainable investment that takes account of the needs of all countries, and increase investment in new medicines, diagnostic tools, vaccines and other interventions. 

National Action Plan on AMR (NAP) 

  • It is developed on the lines of Global Action Plan for AMR  
  • It is based on the 'One Health approach', which means that human health, animal health and the environment sectors have equal responsibilities and strategic actions in combating AMR. 

Collistin 

Colistin is a 50 year-old antibiotic that is being used increasingly as a ‘last-line’ therapy to treat infections caused by Multi Drug Resistant bacteria, when essentially no other options are available.   

Connecting the dots: 

  • UN deputy secretary-general had said that 'antimicrobial resistance is one of the greatest threats we face as a global community'. In this context explain what is AMR and steps taken by India against the same? 

POLITY

TOPIC:General Studies- II

  • Parliament and State Legislatures – structure, functioning, conduct of business, powers & privileges and issues arising out of these.

Role of the Governor

Context :

  • Prolonged stalemate in Maharashtra over the formation of a government as no single party had a majority of its own after the Assembly election in October.
  • It was not a wholly fractured verdict. A pre-poll alliance of the Bharatiya Janata Party (105 seats) and the Shiv Sena (56) had a clear majority (161 in the 288-seat Assembly, with 145 being the majority mark), but the Sena broke the alliance over unresolved issues related to sharing of power. 
  • The Supreme Court of India ordered an early floor test, Ajit Pawar resigned. Mr. Fadnavis followed suit, admitting that he did not have the required majority. 
  • A new post-poll combination, between the Sena, NCP and the Congress and some independents, has now formed the government. 
  • The developments have brought under focus the role of the Governor in such circumstances.

What should the Governor do if there is a hung Assembly?

  • The Constitution envisages that the Governor act on the aid and advice of the Council of Ministers, except in those situations in which he is, by or under the Constitution, required to act in his discretion (Article 163).
  •  It is clear that in identifying a candidate who, in his opinion, is in a position to command a majority, the Governor has to make his own decision, subject, of course, to democratic norms.
  • This is why one often sees the Governor of a State inviting leaders for discussions as part of efforts to explore the possibility of forming a government. 
  • When the Governor appoints the Chief Minister in this way, it is accompanied by a stipulation that the appointee prove his or her majority within a specified time on the floor of the House.

Preferred order 

  • The Governor may invite the leader of the largest single party first. However, if it is clear that the largest single party has no potential ally or enough independent members to ensure a majority, he may also invite the leader of the largest pre-poll combination or alliance.
  • If there is no combination or alliance, he may invite leaders one by one in the order of their size in the new Assembly. 
  • During this process, a post-poll combination may emerge, if any one of them agrees to form a government. The Governor may insist on letters of support from those outside the leader’s party who are willing to join or extend support to him.

Sarkaria Commission on inter-State relations

  • An alliance formed prior to the election; 
  •  The largest single party staking claim with the support of others, including independents; 
  •  A post-electoral coalition, with all partners joining the government; 
  •  A post-poll coalition, with some joining the government, and others extending support from outside.
  • Governor should look for a party or combination that commands the widest support in the Assembly
  • Governor’s  task is to see that a government is formed, and not to try to form a government which will pursue policies which he approves”.
  • The Sarkaria Commission recommends that a person, who has been appointed Chief Minister without a clear majority, should seek a vote of confidence in the Assembly within 30 days. 

Do you know?

Article 174, the Governor summons the House only on the advice of the Council of Ministers, but will be within his constitutional rights to cause the House to be convened if there is reason to believe that there is a doubt about the incumbent’s majority.

SC Judgements:

  • The key principle that ought to guide the Governor is set out in the S.R. Bommai vs. Union of India case (1994). 
  • The court said, for testing the strength of a ministry is a floor test.
  •  Even though this verdict was in the context of the imposition of President’s rule in different States, the principle holds good for any situation in which Governors have to decide on the appointment of a Chief Minister or continuance of a regime based on its numerical strength in the House.
  • In Rameshwar Prasad (2005), the court ruled that there was nothing wrong in installing a post-poll combination, and that the Governor could not decline the formation of a government on the ground that it was being done through unethical means.
  • Karnataka (2018) and Maharashtra (2019) are instances of the court ordering a floor test in a situation in which the Assembly had not yet been convened after the general election. Therefore, the legislators were yet to take their oaths. The court directed the appointment of a pro tem Speaker, to be followed by the administration of oath to the new members and, thereafter, a floor test.
  • SC: “In a situation wherein, if the floor test is delayed, there is a possibility of horse-trading, it becomes incumbent upon the court to act to protect democratic values.”

Connecting the dots:

  • In a case examining the validity a Constitution Bench cautioned Governors against acting on internal party developments or “entering the political thicket”. Examine

(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in comment section)

Note: 

  • Correct answers of today’s questions will be provided in next day’s DNA section. Kindly refer to it and update your answers. 
  • Comments Up-voted by IASbaba are also the “correct answers”.

Q.1) Consider the following statements about Operation Clean Art

  1. The aim of the initiativewas to recover the stolen heritage art from across the world and bring it back to India
  2. It is launched by Ministry of Culture in collaboration with UNICEF

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.2) Consider the following statements about Loktak Lake

  1. It is the largest fresh water lake in North east located in Nagaland
  2. Phumdis which are a series of floating islands consisting of heterogeneous masses of vegetation, soil and organic matter,is exclusive to the Loktak Lake

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.3) Consider the following statements about Jnanapith Award

  1. It is given by Bharatiya Jnanpith, a literary and research organization based in Delhi.
  2. It is bestowed on both Indian and foreign writers writing in Indian languages included in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India and English.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.4) Exercise Surya Kiran is a joint military exercise conducted between India and which other country/countries?

  1. Nepal
  2. Sri Lanka
  3. Australia and Japan
  4. Bhutan and Bangladesh

Q.5) Consider the following statements about Hornbill festival

  1. It is annually held from 1 - 10 December. The first festival was held in 2000.
  2. The festival is organised by Union Ministry of Culture as an annual tourism promotional event to showcase the North East India’s traditional and rich cultural heritage in all its ethnicity, diversity and grandeur.

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

ANSWERS FOR 30 Nov 2019 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE (TYK)

1 A
2 C
3 C
4 C

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