×

 NEW BATCH: AIPTS/ILP-2020 TEST 1 (POLITY), ILP 2020 FRESHERS TEST 23 (HISTORY) has been updated in the Learn Tab.

Daily Current Affairs IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 2nd October 2019
Published on Oct. 2, 2019, 7:15 p.m.

IAS UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 2nd October 2019

Archives


(PRELIMS + MAINS FOCUS)


Delhi-Lucknow Tejas Express

Part of: GS Prelims and GS-III - Infrastructure

In News

  • This is the first train which is not operated directly by the Railways. IRCTC will be operating this train.
  • IRCTC has promised Tejas passengers compensation for delays – Rs100 will be paid if the delay is for over an hour and ₹250 if delay is more than 2 hours
  • The IRCTC has announced a slew of offers, including free travel insurance worth ₹25 lakh and on-board infotainment services, doorstep baggage collection, local food and no tatkal quota, to make the travel on its first train attractive ahead of its first commercial run on October 5.

Do You know?

  • In Japan and Paris, a delay certificate is issued to passengers by railway companies as proof that a train arrived at a station later than stated in the timetable (even for delay as little as five minutes)
  • The document can be shown in schools or offices for late admission at university exams. 
  • In the U.K., rail passengers are entitled to get automatic compensation for delayed journeys.

Parichay (Identity)

Part of: GS Prelims and GS Mains II - Polity

In News

  • In an innovative collaboration, law schools from across the country have come together to launch legal aid clinic named Parichay( Identity) with HQ in Guwahati to help people excluded from NRC
  • More than 19 lakh out of a total of 3.3 crore applicants were left out of the Supreme Court-monitored NRC that was published on August 31. 
  • Those who were left out are required to file appeals against their exclusion within 120 days of receiving their rejection order from the NRC authority.
  • Parichay is envisaged to function as a clearing house of litigation and research assistance for lawyers filing appeals against exclusion from the NRC.
  • Parichay consisting largely of student volunteerswill assist lawyers in drafting appeals, conduct research on pertinent questions of the law, assist in training lawyers and paralegals, and generate documentation on the functioning of Foreigners’ Tribunals.

SC recalls verdict diluting SC/ST anti-atrocities law

Part of: GS Prelims and Mains GS-II - Polity

In News

  • The Supreme Court had diluted the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act of 1989 in March 20, 2018 verdict in Subhash Kashinath Mahajan vs State of Maharashtra case
  • The 2018 judgement had provided 
    • To grant anticipatory bail to accused persons and 
    • Directed that the police should conduct a preliminary enquiry on whether complaint under the 1989 law is “frivolous or motivated” before registering a case. 
  • Both the above conditions were not part of the original legislation.
  • The judgement had created widespread protests and the Centre also filed a review against the judgment citing dilution of safeguards provided under the legislation
  • SC in a review petition has now recalled the verdict given earlier.

Do You know?

  • ‘Review’ of a Supreme Court judgment is done by the same Bench. 
  • ‘Overruling’ means that the law laid down in one case is overruled in another case. 
  • When a higher court on appeal alters the judgment of a lower court, it is called ‘reversal.’
  • A crime is committed against an SC every 15 minutes. 
  • Six SC women are raped every day on an average. 
  • Between 2007 and 2017, there was a 66 per cent growth in crimes against SCs

Miscellaneous

Climate change is prompting a habitat change in Himalayas.

  • The butterfly named Himalayan tailless bushblue was known to occur at an altitude between 1,300 m to 2,400 m in Jammu and Kashmir and Uttarakhand. 
  • Recent studies however, have located the species at 3,577 m in Askot Wildlife Sanctuary in Uttarakhand, at least 1,200 m higher than it’s known range.
  • Most of the species that were found at lower attitude had moved up possibly due to climate change, according to research
  • Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies) are known as potent ecological indicators

Humans pollute more than volcanoes

  • The Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO), a 500-strong international team of scientists, noted that Human activity churns out up to 100 times carbon each year as all the volcanoes on Earth.
  • Manmade emissions in 2018 alone topped 37 gigatonnes.
  • By comparison, the CO2 released annually by volcanoes hovers around 0.3 and 0.4 gigatonnes
  • Modern manmade emissions were the “same magnitude” as past carbon shocks that precipitated mass extinction.

(MAINS FOCUS)


EDUCATION 

TOPIC: General Studies 2:

  • Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health, Education, Human Resources.

NITI Aayog's Education Index

  • Niti Aayog released the school education quality index (SEQI) aimed at evaluating the performance of states and Union Territories (UTs) in the school education sector.
  • The top five performing states are Kerala, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Assam.

Background:

  • The School Education Quality Index (SEQI) was developed to evaluate the performance of States and Union Territories (UTs) in the school education sector.
  • The index aims to bring an outcomes focus to education policy by providing States and UTs with a platform to identify their strengths and weaknesses and undertake requisite course corrections or policy interventions. 
  • To foster the spirit of competitive and cooperative federalism, the index strives to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and best practices across States and UTs. 
  • SEQI aims to drive policy reforms that will improve the quality of school education. 
  • The index seeks to institutionalise a focus on enhancing education outcomes by driving improvements in learning levels, access, equity, infrastructure and governance processes.

Indicators

  • The indicators are categorized into Outcomes and Governance Processes Aiding Outcomes (GPAO). 
  •  Outcomes include learning outcomes, access outcomes, infrastructure and facilities for outcomes and equity outcomes, 
  • GPAO includes the support system necessary for learning to take place like training and availability of teachers, attendance of students and teachers, administrative adequacy etc.

Img: https://images.firstpost.com/optimize/HCrW65Th2elr7st-OGgux80tZ_4=/images.firstpost.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/School-Performance-Index.jpg

A case study In Haryana:

  • Among the lakhs of employees on the payrolls of State governments in India, the education department, unarguably, has the largest share of employees.
  • Any effort to introduce education reforms must ensure that the incentives of all stakeholders are aligned throughout the system to ensure their participation.

Ex : Haryana, which has created a race among its administrative blocks to be declared as ‘Saksham’ (Hindi for abled/skilled), i.e. 

  • Block have 80% or more students who are grade level competent.(appropriate level of competence for a particular grade)
  • If Officials are confident that their block has achieved the 80% target, state officials nominate their block for the ‘Saksham Ghoshna’.
  • Then followed by rigorous rounds of third party assessments to check their claims.
  • If a block is found to be ‘Saksham’, the block officials are recognised and honoured by the State administration.
  • when all blocks in a district are declared as ‘Saksham’, the entire district is also accorded the ‘Saksham’ status.
  • At present , 94 blocks out of a total of 119 in Haryana have been declared ‘Saksham’.

Conclusion:

  • The index recognises that school education is a subject on the Concurrent List and that State-level leadership is crucial for improving outcomes in a cost-effective manner. 
  • The index will serve as a regular and transparent review of the status of school education quality across the States and UTs.

Connecting the dots  :

  • The NITI’s Aayog’s State ranking not only encourages competition among States but also rewards and motivates other States to consistently improve. substantiate.

LAW

TOPIC: General Studies 2:

  • Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes; mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections

SC reverses dilution of SC/ST Act

Context:

  • In 2018, the Supreme Court of India banned immediate arrest of a person accused of insulting or injuring a Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe member to protect innocents from arbitrary arrest.
  • Why? A number of cases of misuse of this Act has been reported from different parts of the country as mentioned 
  • The Supreme Court has recently recalled its directions

Did you know?

  • In August, 2018, the parliament of India passed the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Bill, 2018, to bypass the ruling of the Supreme Court of India laying down procedures for arrests under the Act.

In what manner had the 2018 judgment diluted provisions for arrest?

  • Keeping in view the special nature of crimes against Dalits , anticipatory bail under Section  will not be available to an accused under the Act. Supreme Court laid in 2018 down safeguards, including provisions for anticipatory bail and a “preliminary enquiry” before registering a case under the Act
  • In 2018 SC ordered that neither is an FIR to be immediately registered nor are arrests to be made without a preliminary inquiry by an SSP. An arrest can only be made if there is “credible” information and police officer has “reason to believe” that an offence was committed. Now SC rejected the need of an SSP’s approval for arrest.

Justice Goel had observed that “interpretation of Atrocities Act should promote constitutional values of fraternity and integration of the society. This may require ‘check on false implication of innocent citizens on caste lines’.”

Terminologies:

  • ‘Review’ of a Supreme Court judgment is done by the same Bench.(Generally, a review is heard in the judge’s chamber, but may be heard in open court in important cases — as in the Sabarimala and Rafale cases, in which no order has been pronounced yet)
  •  ‘Overruling’ means that the law laid down in one case is overruled in another case. 
  • When a higher court on appeal alters the judgment of a lower court, it is called ‘reversal.’

Justice Mishra said “despite various measures to improve the socio-economic conditions of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, they remain vulnerable. They are denied number of civil rights. They are subjected to various offences, indignities, humiliations and harassment. They have, in several brutal incidents, been deprived of their life and property”

Scheduled Castes and Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989

  • The Scheduled Castes and Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted to prevent atrocities against scheduled castes and scheduled tribes
  • It was enacted when the provisions of the existing laws (such as the Protection of Civil Rights Act 1955 and Indian Penal Code) were found to be inadequate to check these crimes (defined as 'atrocities' in the Act). 
  • Recognising the continuing gross indignities and offences against Scheduled Castes and Tribes, the Parliament passed the ‘Scheduled Castes and Schedule Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act 1989.
  • The practice of untouchability, in its overt and covert form was made a cognizable and non compoundable offence, and strict punishment is provided for any such offence.
  • The purpose of the Act was to help the social inclusion of Dalits into Indian society

Data :

  • A crime is committed against an SC every 15 minutes. 
  • Six SC women are raped every day on an average.
  • Between 2007 and 2017, there was a 66 per cent growth in crimes against SCs.

Conclusion:

  • The Supreme Court can lay down guidelines only in cases of legislative gaps. But where the field is occupied by parliamentary legislation, the judiciary is bound by the text of law.

Connecting the dots:

  • Interpretation of Atrocities Act should promote constitutional values of fraternity and integration of the society. Justify

(TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE)


Model questions: (You can now post your answers in comment section)

Note: 

  • Featured Comments and comments Up-voted by IASbaba are the “correct answers”.
  • IASbaba App users – Team IASbaba will provide correct answers in comment section. Kindly refer to it and update your answers.

Q.1) Subhash Kashinath Mahajan Case often seen in news dealt with which of the following area?

  1. Doctrine of Basic structure
  2. Right to Privacy
  3. Judicial Independence
  4. SC/ST atrocities law

Q.2) Consider the following statements about Tejas Express between Delhi and Lucknow

  1. This is the first train which is not operated directly by the Railways
  2. Passengers in this train can avail compensation for delays in train operations

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.3) Consider the following statements about Parichay(Identity)

  1. It islegal aid clinic launched by Government of Assam and Government of India 
  2. It is envisaged to function as a clearing house of litigation and research assistance for lawyers filing appeals against exclusion from the NRC

Which of the statement(s) given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q.4) Askot Wildlife Sanctuary is present in which state of India?

  1. Uttar Pradesh
  2. Himachal Pradesh
  3. Uttarakhand
  4. Arunachal Pradesh

Q.5) Lichens can be used as an indicator for which of the following?

  1. Air and Water Pollution
  2. Presence of radioactive metals
  3. Presence of heavy metals

Select the correct answer from the codes given below.

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1,2 and 3

MUST READ

The worst may be over: On economic numbers 

The Hindu

What would Gandhi say about the Indian media?

The Hindu

Recovering Gandhi’s religious vision

The Hindu

Why 2005 declaration on synergy between government and NGOs is still relevant

Indian Express

In last five years, Swachh Bharat mission has captured people’s imagination

Indian Express