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SYNOPSIS [20th JULY,2021] Day 137: IASbaba’s TLP (Phase 1): UPSC Mains Answer Writing (General Studies)
Published on July 21, 2021, 6:47 p.m.

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SYNOPSIS [20th JULY,2021] Day 137: IASbaba’s TLP (Phase 1): UPSC Mains Answer Writing (General Studies)

  1. The general election of 1967 was a watershed in India’s political history? Do you agree? Substantiate.

Approach 

Give a brief introduction on what were the different events which were in flow at 1967 elections.In next part mention what were the changes brought by the elections with giving various examples.In conclusion summarise the events and contextualise with the present times.

Introduction

The Lok Sabha election of 1967 was a turning point in the Indian democracy for a plethora of reasons. India had already seen two wars with its neighbouring countries.The economy was in bad shape and India had lost two Prime ministers in quick succession.It was also time when the people were looking for different options in politics other than the Congress which had dominated until now.

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The election of 1967 was watershed in India’s Post Independence history due to the following factors

Decline of Congress System

  • After Congress being synonymous with India and India with Congress, the vote share of Congress came down drastically for the first time after Independence in the 1967 elections.
  • Local Parties even formed government in six states including Tamilnadu and Westbengal which was seen for the first time.

Rise of Coalition Politics

  • Until now, the Congress was very hegemonic in its approach-gaining complete majority on most occasions.
  • But, almost 20 years later after Independence- various coalition parties came up against the Congress For example : DMK, Communist parties supported congress at the centre while they were opposed to each other at the state levels.

Rise of Middle Class Peasants

  • Due to Green Revolution and importance given to agriculture after the initial years of Independence, the economic condition of peasants improved.
  • This led to rise in politics around farmers where there were marches to Delhi for the demand of better quality seeds, subsidy on fertilisers and enlargement of green revolution territories 

Split of Congress

  • The Congress party split in a couple of years and Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s faction was reduced to a minority in the Lok Sabha in December 1969.
  • This gave rise to many small parties over a period of time which led to creation of Janta party.Even today parties such as Trinamool Congress, Nationalist Congress party .

Politics of defection

  • Increase in horse trading, rise of lot of small parties.As the parties increased it led to inducements to legislators.The nationalism in the legislators which was present at the independence was waning 

First Election after 1965 and 1967 war

  • The spirit of nationalism and integration was reinstated due to the two wars.People were high on nationalism after the decisive war with Pakistan.
  • The spirit of Nationalism was at its peak.

Anti-Incumbency 

  • The prolonged Congress rule and the Nehru Era, through had many positives put India into the mouth of two wars.
  • People criticized Nehru for the same and started looking for alternatives. 
  • The Congress party, even while retaining power at the Centre (with a reduced strength in the Lok Sabha) was voted out in nine states. Uttar Pradesh, where the Congress had managed a majority in the election also slipped out of its hold, within a month, when Charan Singh left the party with a chunk of MLAs to become Chief Minister of a non-Congress coalition.

Creation of Multi-Party Democracy in India.

  • Indian democracy was feared going the China way, but downfall of Congress and growing of Coalition politics came to India’s rescue 
  • The Congress party split in a couple of years and Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s faction was reduced to a minority in the Lok Sabha in December 1969.
  • Multiple viewpoints, multiple ideas started getting to be recognized.
  • We started to become more tolerant to different world views.

Religious fanaticism was on rise.

  • The Hindu-Muslim divide kept on rising.
  • Political instabilities added to Polarisation, leading to further fragmentation. 

Conclusion

The 1967 showed that  Indian nation had matured and taken the shape of concrete blocks and was being put to test by various political formations to build their own edifices. It showed that the young nation had stabilised after Independence and the single party rule was giving way to multiparty system. This was a period when the seeds of present political system were sowed and was a watershed moment in India political history.


2. What role have Cricket and Bollywood played in post independence consolidation? Illustrate. 

Approach 

Introduce Indian independence and then contextualise to the demand of the question.Then address the role played by cricket and Bollywood in consolidation of India after Independence.Substantiate with examples 

Introduction:

India was born out of a protracted struggle against the colonial rule.The freedom which came ,came with a prize of partition.The whole nation wanted to be part of nation building process which also included cricket and cinema.Cricket and Cinema have played a huge role in inculcating National feelings, Unity and Brotherhood among Indians. Their contribution in post independence consolidation of India as nation has been an important element.

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Role played by cricket in Post-Independence consolidation 

  • The game of cricket was introduced by the colonisers but Indians even before independence were competing against the England.This imparted the spirit of nationalism in the cricket team over the years.
  • Cricket was a low cost game which gave equality of opportunity based on merit.Thus it brought people across various caste and class to play under one team. From Maharajas to commoners.This lead to a national consciousness.
  • It made people from various regions to come together, watch matches and cheer for players irrespective of their regional origins.
  • Every victory such as the world cup win of 1983 and every struggle which Indians faced in England and Australia brought country together.The nation rejoiced and lamented collectively.
  • It broke caste, creed, regional and Gender barriers and made people come together as part of one country.
  • With movement of players from one state to another, representing states different from one’s origin, it has played a huge role in Cultural exchanges and bringing people together.This embedded pluralism in India which was part of unity in diversity which had been long held by Indians.
  • From being a mere sport, it has got transformed into a status of Religion among country men.
  • It gave Indians not only collective identity within the nation but the diaspora which have been indentured in past and migrated due to economic reasons rejoiced in Indian teams victories.This helped India establish a mature relationship with foreign countries .

Role played by Cinema in National consolidation :

  • Nationalism: Indian films such as Naya Daur(1957) and mother India (1957) both helped in invoking nationalism in Indians and this has continued in films such a Chak de India in 2007.
  • Economic system: The movies have represented the economic system of it times such as 1950s had emphasis on socialism while the 2000s represented the liberal economy.This has guided the values of Indians.
  • Culture: The influence of Bollywood all over the country in Initial years exposed the whole country to the diversity of Indian nation.It promoted multiculturalism and plural values.
  • Religious Harmony: Many movies have portrayed how the evil elements of society create the social divide in different religions.It educated masses to guard themselves against these tendencies.Further message of communal harmony has been given from movies such as Garam Hawa, to recently released Commando.
  • Political awareness and democratisation: Movies like Leader, Andha kanoon have made people question government,the corruption and democratised the society by invoking the value of voting.

Conclusion

The India as it exists today is due to many factors such as government, contexts, leadership, defence but also has contributions of Cinema and cricket.These both elements have infused nationalism, increased social interaction, created a collective identity and helped make government accountable.Thus both have played an important role in post independence consolidation and this role needs to be carried forward for a better and stronger nation.


3. Was underestimating and understating Chinese adventurism in the late 1950s a strategic miscalculation? Substantiate your viewpoint.

Approach 

Introduce with the initial trajectories of India and China as new nations.In next part substantiate the answer with how the initial policy before 1962 was more based on idealism which led to miscalculation which eventually culminated into a war.In conclusion contextualise to the present situation and how India is responding today.

Introduction 

The Republic of India and the People’s Republic of China both emerged as newly established nation-states at the end of the 1940s, putting behind them decades of prolonged strife and struggle. Endowed with huge, predominantly agrarian populations, burdened with widespread poverty, and possessing economies with underdeveloped and tiny industrial sectors, they faced daunting challenges to governance and development. Both countries were also multi-ethnic, multi-cultural societies that had inherited a variety of border problems and suffered some degree of territorial dismemberment.

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India’s miscalculations and understating towards Chinese adventurism in 1950’s:

  • UNSC support: India extended its unequivocal support and was one of the first countries to recognize communist china. India also lobbied for the UN Security Council membership for communist china, which the western world has given to the nationalist china (Taiwan).
  • The Tibet Question: Tibet, which was a British protectorate till 1950 and enjoyed de facto independence, was forcefully occupied by china in October 1950. India did not press upon its special rights over Tibet and accepted the Chinese position on Tibet, as the Tibet had been culturally a part of China, apart from the period when Tibet came under the influence of imperialism.
  • In 1959, in the aftermath of a Tibetan uprising against Chinese high handedness, the 14th Dalai Lama fled to India. Since then India has granted asylum to the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan government in exile.
  • India maintains that Dalai Lama is just an honoured guest and India unequivocally recognizes Tibet as the part of china. For china, the asylum to the Dalai Lama is an Indian tactic of keeping the issue of Tibetan sovereignty alive.
  • Panchsheel agreement: In 1954 the famous panchsheel agreement (five principles of the peaceful coexistence) was signed between India and China, in which India officially recognized Chinese sovereignty over Tibet.
  • McMahon line issue: In the east China rejected to accept the McMahon line, which was accepted as the boundary between the Tibet and India in the Shimla conference of 1914.
  • China contends that in the conference the Chinese representative never signed the agreement and the Tibet being the part of China did not have any rights to sign treaties independently.
  • In the eastern sector, China started claiming the whole of NEFA, on the pretext that it was the part of southern Tibet and Tawang town has cultural and Buddhist links with Tibet and china, & also the area became part of the British India only after the demarcation of the McMahon line.
  • NAM: Nehru was on a mission of uniting the third world countries under the umbrella of the non-aligned movement. India’s increasing clout, as some strategic thinkers believe, was causing some heartburn to Chinese leaders.
  • In 1961, china occupied some Indian administered areas in the eastern sector. In response India resorted to ‘forward policy’, which was interpreted by china as a manifestation of Indian expansionist intentions.

Chinese army launched a simultaneous offensive in Ladakh and NEFA in October 1962. The advancing Chinese acquired several territories in Ladakh and the Tawang in the eastern sector. On November 20, 1962 china announced unilateral cease- fire and withdrew from all disputed territories.

Conclusion

The miscalculations made by India have led to learning and recalibration of Indian policy towards China.After the 1962 setback India has held its guard and build its defences against China.This can be seen by India’s recent responses to China at Doklam and Galwan.Further seeing the expansionist and belligerent policies of China India need to invest in its defences as-well as push at international forums to counter China.The Build Back Better Initiative by western power’s is a good start and India should take a lead in it.

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